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Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - UPSC MCQ


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25 Questions MCQ Test Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 for UPSC 2024 is part of Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly preparation. The Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 questions and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus.The Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 MCQs are made for UPSC 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 below.
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Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 1

Consider the following statements.

  1. The riparian principle says that the state through which a river passes has the right to its waters.
  2. Satluj Yamuna Link Canal is an under-construction canal for river water sharing between New Delhi and Punjab.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 1

The riparian principle says that the state through which a river passes has the right to its waters.

Satluj Yamuna Link Canal or SYL as it is popularly known, is an under-construction 214-kilometer long canal in India to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. However, the proposal met obstacles[3] and was referred to the Supreme Court of India. It was defined as river water sharing between the states of Punjab and Haryana.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 2

Consider the following statements.

  1. Global Hunger Index is a peer-reviewed annual report that measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels.
  2. A high score in the Global Hunger Index gets a country a higher ranking and implies a better performance.
  3. Achieving “Zero Hunger by 2030” is one of the Sustainable Development Goals laid out by the United Nations.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 2

The GHI, is a peer-reviewed annual report that endeavours to “comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels”. It is jointly-produced by the Germany-based not-for-profit organisation Welthungerhilfe and Ireland-based Concern Worldwide.

India has ranked 107th out of 121 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2022, down from the 101st position the previous year.

The GHI has been brought out almost every year since 2000; with this year’s report being the 15th one. A low score gets a country a higher ranking and implies a better performance.

The reason for mapping hunger is to ensure that the world achieves “Zero Hunger by 2030” — one of the Sustainable Development Goals laid out by the United Nations. It is for this reason that GHI scores are not calculated for certain high-income countries.

While in common parlance hunger is understood in terms of food deprivation, in a formal sense it is calculated by mapping the level of calorie intake.

But the GHI does not limit itself to this narrow definition of hunger. Instead, it tracks the performance of different countries on four key parameters because, taken together, these parameters capture multiple dimensions — such a deficiency of micronutrients — of hunger, thus providing a far more comprehensive measure of hunger.

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Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 3

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) tracks the performance of countries on which of the following parameters?

1. Undernourishment
2. Child Wasting
3. Child Mortality
4. Child Stunting

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 3

The GHI looks at four main indicators:

  • Undernourishment (which reflects inadequate food availability): calculated by the share of the population that is undernourished (that is, whose caloric intake is insufficient);
  • Child Wasting (which reflects acute undernutrition): calculated by the share of children under the age of five who are wasted (that is, those who have low weight for their height);
  • Child Stunting (which reflects chronic undernutrition): calculated by the share of children under the age of five who are stunted (that is, those who have low height for their age);
  • Child Mortality (which reflects both inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environment): calculated by the mortality rate of children under the age of five (in part, a reflection of the fatal mix of inadequate nutrition.
Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 4

Consider the following statements regarding Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA).

  1. The Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is a multi-national forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.
  2. India is a founder member of CICA and the idea of convening CICA was first proposed by India.
  3. To be a member of CICA, a state must have at least a part of its territory in Asia.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 4

The Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is a multi-national forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia. It is a forum based on the recognition that there is a close link between peace, security and stability in Asia and in the rest of the world.

The idea of convening CICA was first proposed by the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Elbasy H.E. Mr. Nursultan Nazarbayev, on 5 October 1992, at the 47th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.

To be a member of CICA, a state must have at least a part of its territory in Asia. 

India is a member state of CICA.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 5

Consider the following statements regarding Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  1. ADHD is the neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood diagnosed at an early age.
  2. Children with ADHD might have trouble paying attention or controlling impulsive behaviours.
  3. ADHD does not last into adulthood.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 5

The US Food and Drug and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 12 announced a shortage of Adderall, medication used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

ADHD is one the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, usually diagnosed at an early age and lasting into adulthood. According to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children with ADHD might have trouble paying attention or controlling impulsive behaviours, and can be overly active.

Many adults remain undiagnosed, and symptoms can cause difficulty at work, home or relationships. The CDC states that symptoms can appear different at older ages, for example, hyperactivity can appear as extreme restlessness.

For people diagnosed with ADHD, Adderall can help improve focus, concentration, impulse control and hyperactivity, because of its effects on the central nervous system.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 6

Meghadūta is a lyric poem composed by

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 6

The Mahakal temple finds a mention in several ancient Indian poetic texts. In the early part of the Meghadūta composed in the 4th century, Kalidasa gives a description of the Mahakal temple. It is described as one with a stone foundation, with the ceiling on wooden pillars. There would be no shikharas or spires on the temples prior to the Gupta period.

The city of Ujjain was also one of the primary centres of learning for Hindu scriptures, called Avantika in the 6th and 7th centuries BC. Later, astronomers and mathematicians such as Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya made Ujjain their home.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 7

UN Environment Programme (UNEP) publishes which of the following scientific publications?

  1. Global Environment Outlook
  2. Global Chemicals Outlook
  3. Emissions Gap Report

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 7

UNEP’s scientific publications such as the flagship Global Environment Outlook, the Global Chemicals Outlook and the Emissions Gap Report provide detailed analysis and key findings that support enhanced environmental policymaking and governance. These reports help bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers, who then can turn policy into action.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 8

Recently the National Human Rights Commission issued an advisory to the Union and State Governments to prevent and minimise the impact of ocular trauma. Ocular trauma mainly affects 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 8

The National Human Rights Commission issued an advisory to the Union and State Governments to prevent and minimise the impact of ocular trauma, which it said causes 5% of permanent blindness.

The NHRC asked the government to identify the industries that have a high potential of ocular trauma and make it mandatory for such units with 50 workers or more to have accident cover of ₹15 lakh for each worker.

Among the NHRC’s suggestions were a ban on sale of fire-crackers that have the potential to cause eye trauma; ban on sale of bows, arrows, pellet guns and toys that have sharp edges; introduction of technology to reduce eye injuries due to road accidents; and mandatory safe packaging and labelling of chemicals for domestic use.

“The Commission has observed that major contributors of eye injury are road accidents (34%), sports (29%) and occupations (21%).

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 9

Which of the following animal is often referred to as the “Ghost of the Mountains”? 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 9

Snow leopard, often referred to as Ghost of the Mountains because of its coat that helps it blend in a snowy-rocky environment.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 10

Consider the following statements regarding National E-Governance Services Ltd (NeSL).

  1. NeSL is India’s first Information Utility that has been set up by leading banks and public institutions.
  2. It is incorporated as a union government company.
  3. It is registered with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) under the aegis of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
  4. NeSL works towards time-bound resolution by providing verified information to creditors and to Adjudicating Authorities that do not require further authentication.

Which of the above statement sis/are correct? 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 10

NeSL is India’s first Information Utility and is registered with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) under the aegis of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC). The company has been set up by leading banks and public institutions and is incorporated as a union government company. The primary role of NeSL is to serve as a repository of legal evidence holding the information pertaining to any debt/claim, as submitted by the financial or operational creditor and verified and authenticated by the parties to the debt.

NeSL works towards:

  • Time-bound resolution by providing verified information to creditors and to Adjudicating Authorities that do not require further authentication.
  • Default intimation to Creditors linked to a debtor when any creditor files a default against a debtor
  • Mitigation of information asymmetry between parties to a debt
  • Superior credit monitoring by creditors
  • An agreed statement of outstanding balance between parties to a debt
  • Facilitate all stakeholders of the IBC ecosystem by leveraging Information Technology to achieve objective of code

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 11

Consider the following statements regarding “Neo banks” sometimes seen in news.

  1. Neo banks are financial institutions with only an online presence and function digitally.
  2. Neo banks have to apply for a banking license with RBI.
  3. Neo banks offer banking services like savings accounts, small loans and debit cards.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 11

Neo banks are financial institutions with only an online presence and function digitally.

They offer all traditional bank services via a digital setup or mobile apps without having any physical branches.

These are 100% digital banks. They cannot apply for a banking license. The expertise of these neo banks lies in tying technology and artificial intelligence together to offer personalized financial services to customers. It is offered at a minimal cost.

Neo banks offer limited products like savings accounts, small loans, debit cards, etc. and not all services of banks.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 12

Consider the following statements regarding Official Language Committee.

  1. The Official Language Committee is not mentioned in the Constitution of India.
  2. It consists of members from both Parliament and State Assemblies.
  3. It is headed by the Prime Minister of India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct? 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 12

Article 344 (4) provides for a ‘Committee consisting of thirty members’, ‘twenty’ from the Parliament and ‘ten’ from State assemblies, for safeguarding language related provisions.

The Official Language Committee is headed by the Home Ministry.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 13

Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC) is an agency formed at a village level or a cluster of villages situated adjacent to Reserved Forests (RF). Which of the following are the functions of Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC)?

  1. Selecting the plant species to be planted in the forest
  2. Ensure sustainable management of forest resources
  3. Restore watershed capability in catchment areas
  4. Assure employment opportunities to the tribal communities.

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 13

Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC) is an agency formed at a village level or a cluster of villages situated adjacent to Reserved Forests (RF) registered with the Territorial Divisional Forest Office

JFMC is responsible for selecting the plant species to be planted in the forest, suggesting physical and financial targets, conducting awareness programs. The JFMC objectives are to ensure sustainable management of forest resources, to improve forest cover via afforestation, to restore degraded forest land, to promote conservation awareness through environmental education, restore watershed capability in catchment areas and to assure employment opportunities to the tribal communities.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 14

In the last few years, the Government has undertaken which of the following reforms in the telecom sector in India?

  1. Allowed 100% FDI in the sector
  2. Enabled in-flight Wi-Fi
  3. Allowed deferred payments from telecom operators
  4. Deregulated BPOs and call centres

Select the correct answer code: 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 14

Key policy interventions and technological advancements have made India the second-largest telecom market in the world. The sector is one of the highest contributors to India’s GDP. In the last few years, the government has allowed 100% FDI in the sector, largely deregulated BPOs and call centres, enabled in-flight Wi-Fi, and allowed deferred payments from telecom operators due to their strained financial conditions. Now, the Department of Telecom has released the draft Indian Telecommunication Bill, 2022 — aimed at reforming existing telecom laws and regulations, and making them “future ready” — for public comment.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 15

Recently the Prime Minister dedicated 75 digital banking units to the nation. The digital banking products and services offered by digital banking units are:

  1. Fixed deposit and recurring deposit accounts
  2. Debit cards, credit cards
  3. Mass transit system cards
  4. UPI QR codes

Select the correct answer code: 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 15

As per the RBI, each DBU must offer certain minimum digital banking products and services. The services include saving bank accounts under various schemes, current accounts, fixed deposit and recurring deposit accounts, digital kits for customers, mobile banking, Internet banking, debit cards, credit cards, and mass transit system cards, digital kits for merchants, UPI QR codes, BHIM Aadhaar and point of sale (PoS).

Other services include making applications for and onboarding customers for identified retail, MSME or schematic loans. This may also include end-to-end digital processing of such loans, starting from online application to disbursal and identified government-sponsored schemes that are covered under the national portal.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 16

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) are particularly vulnerable to and mainly concerned with which of the following? 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 16

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is an intergovernmental organization of low-lying coastal and small island countries. AOSIS was established in 1990, ahead of the Second World Climate Conference. The main purpose of the alliance is to consolidate the voices of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to address global warming.

These island countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change and its related effects on the ocean, including sea level rise, coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion. The members are among the nations least responsible for climate change, having contributed less than 1% to the world’s greenhouse gas emissions.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 17

Consider the following statements regarding Contempt of Court.

  1. The expression ‘contempt of court’ has not been defined by the Constitution.
  2. The Supreme Court and High Courts derive their contempt powers from The Contempt of Court Act, 1971.
  3. Willful disobedience to any judgment, order, writ or other processes of a court amount to criminal contempt.

Which of the above statements is/are correct? 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 17

Contempt of Court:

  • The expression ‘contempt of court’ has not been defined by the Constitution.
  • Contempt of Court refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court.
  • The objective for contempt is stated to be to safeguard the interests of the public if the authority of the Court is denigrated and public confidence in the administration of justice is weakened or eroded.
  • The Supreme Court and High Courts derive their contempt powers from the Constitution.
  • As per the Contempt of Courts Act 1971, contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court.
     

The act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.

  • Civil contempt:It is willful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other processes of a court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to the court.
  • Criminal contempt:It is any publication which may result in:
  • Scandalising the court by lowering its authority.
  • Interference in the due course of a judicial proceeding.
  • An obstruction in the administration of justice.
     

However, innocent publication and distribution of some matter, fair and reasonable criticism of judicial acts and comment on the administrative side of the judiciary do not amount to contempt of court.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 18

The Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE) campaign, that aims at safeguarding the environment by adopting environment-friendly lifestyle, was launched by 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 18

The Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE) campaign was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at COP26 in Glasgow in 2021. The prime minister called upon global leaders to join the movement for safeguarding the environment by adopting environment-friendly lifestyle.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 19

Consider the following statements regarding Negotiable warehouse receipt (NWR).

  1. The negotiable warehouse receipt (NWR) system allows the transfer of ownership of a commodity stored in a warehouse without having to deliver it physically.
  2. NABARD regulates the entire operation under NWR.
  3. NWRs are issued by registered warehouses and enables farmers to seek loans from banks against NWRs.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 19
  • The negotiable warehouse receipt (NWR) system was launched in 2011 allowing the transfer of ownership of a commodity stored in a warehouse without having to deliver it physically. These receipts are issued in negotiable form, making them eligible as collateral.
  • This has been enabled by enabling the financing of warehouse receipts through the Warehouse (Development and Regulation) Act, 2007. The Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) regulates the entire operation under NWR. 
     

Government launches negotiable warehousing receipts in e-format.
Electronic-Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (e-NWR) will help farmers/FPOs to have access to a large number of buyers across the country.

Salient features of e-NWR

  • An e-NWR is available only in electronic form.
  • The single source of information for the e-NWR is the repository system where e-NWR is issued by registered warehouses.
  • Confidentiality, integrity and availability of the e-NWR information is provided by the Repository system.
  • An e-NWR has time validity.
  • All e-NWRS can be traded through off-market or on-market in Commodity Exchanges platforms.
  • An e-NWR can be auctioned under certain conditions such as loan not repaid, on expiry and delivery not taken, and on likely damage or spoilage of the commodity in the warehouse.
  • e-NWR can be transferred fully or in part.

Benefits of e-NWR system: 

  • Avoidance of forgery/loss/tamper/mutilation of a physical NWR.
  • Avoidance of multiple financing against the same NWR.
  • Reduction of monitoring costs and building credibility amongst market participants.
  • Market participants to have secured accessibility to view and manage their warehouse receipts via online portal.
  • Easy access to finance by enabling multiple transfers without physical movement of goods.
  • Splitting of NWRs for partial sale/pledge/withdrawal.
Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 20

Consider the following statements regarding

  1. First generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats.
  2. Second generation biofuels are produced from micro-organisms like algae.
  3. Third generation biofuels are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 20

Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels primarily produced from biomass, and can be used to replace or can be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other fossil fuels for transport, stationary, portable and other applications. Crops used to make biofuels are generally either high in sugar (such as sugarcane, sugarbeet, and sweet sorghum), starch (such as maize and tapioca) or oils (such as soybean, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower).

Biofuels are generally classified into three categories. They are

  • First generation biofuels – First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. Common first-generation biofuels include Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, Biogas.
  • Second generation biofuels – These are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Examples include advanced biofuels like biohydrogen, biomethanol.
  • Third generation biofuels – These are produced from micro-organisms like algae.
Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 21

Gaza strip, often seen in the news, shares border with which of the following countries?

  1. Syria
  2. Egypt
  3. Jordan
  4. Israel

Select the correct answer code: 

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 21

The Gaza Strip is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the east and north.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 22

Consider the following statements regarding Ammonia.

  1. Ammonia is naturally present in the human body and secreted by the kidneys to neutralise excess acid.
  2. It is highly soluble in water, and is found in soil and air.
  3. It is critical in the manufacturing of fertilizers, and is one of the largest-volume synthetic chemicals produced in the world.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 22

Ammonia, which is highly soluble in water, is found in soil, air, and water; it is naturally present in the body and secreted by the kidneys to neutralise excess acid. However, it is highly diluted when in the environment and does not affect the human body to a noticeable level.

Ammonia is critical in the manufacturing of fertilizers, and is one of the largest-volume synthetic chemicals produced in the world. More than 80 per cent of ammonia made is consumed in the manufacturing of fertilizer, and most of the remainder goes into the production of formaldehyde.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 23

Which of the following countries share border with Red Sea?

  1. Eritrea
  2. Iran
  3. Djibouti
  4. Oman

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 23

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez.

The six countries bordering the Red Sea are: Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 24

With reference to Sultanpur National Park, Thol Wildlife Sanctuary and Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, consider the following statements.

  1. All of them are birding sites
  2. All of them are Ramsar sites
  3. All of them are naturally formed wetlands

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 24

Thol Wildlife Sanctuary, Sultanpur National Park and Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary are Ramsar sites and birding sites.

Thol Lake is an artificial lake located in Gujarat.

Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 25

Consider the following statements regarding Outer Space Treaty.

  1. Outer Space Treaty is a multilateral treaty drafted outside the auspices of the United Nations and forms the basis of international space law.
  2. According to the treaty, Outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States.
  3. States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in outer space.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: October 2022 Weekly Current Affair - 3 - Question 25

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a multilateral treaty that forms the basis of international space law. Negotiated and drafted under the auspices of the United Nations.

Outer Space Treaty (OST) treaty entered into force in October 1967.

The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles:

  • Exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
  • Outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
  • Outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
  • States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
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