20 Questions MCQ Test Social Studies (SST) Class 10 - Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4
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The earliest kind of print technology was developed in :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 1
The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan, and Korea.
Here is a detailed explanation:
Introduction: The development of print technology was a significant milestone in human history as it revolutionized the sharing of information and knowledge. The earliest form of print technology originated in East Asia, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Development in China: - China is widely regarded as the birthplace of print technology. - The invention of woodblock printing, also known as xylography, is attributed to China. - Woodblock printing involved carving characters or images onto wooden blocks, which were then inked and pressed onto paper. - The Diamond Sutra, printed in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), is the earliest surviving printed book. Spread to Japan: - The knowledge and techniques of woodblock printing spread from China to Japan. - Buddhist monks played a significant role in the transmission of print technology to Japan. - The earliest printed book in Japan, the "Hyakumantō Darani" (One Million Pagoda Dharani), was produced in 770 AD using woodblock printing. Development in Korea: - Korea, influenced by both China and Japan, also adopted woodblock printing. - The Tripitaka Koreana, a collection of Buddhist scriptures, is one of the most famous examples of early Korean woodblock printing. - The Tripitaka Koreana was created during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392 AD) and consisted of over 80,000 woodblocks. Conclusion: The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan, and Korea. Woodblock printing, which originated in China, spread to Japan and Korea, where it was further developed and utilized for the printing of various texts and scriptures. These early print technologies laid the foundation for the advancement of printing methods that followed in different parts of the world.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 2
The uses of print diversified in urban China by the 17th century. Which of the following statements support the above statement?
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 2
Explanation: The statement claims that the uses of print diversified in urban China by the 17th century. To support this statement, the following points can be made: A: Print was no longer used by scholar-officials only: - Scholar-officials were traditionally the main users of print in China. - If print was no longer limited to scholar-officials, it means that other groups of people started using print as well. - This suggests a diversification in the uses of print. B: Merchants used print in their everyday life and trade information: - Merchants are an important social group in urban areas. - If merchants started using print in their everyday life and trade information, it implies that print became a tool for business and commercial purposes. - This further indicates a diversification in the uses of print. C: Reading became a leisure activity: - If reading became a leisure activity, it suggests that print materials were not solely used for academic or official purposes. - This implies that print materials were produced and consumed for entertainment and personal enjoyment. - This supports the idea that the uses of print diversified. D: All the above: - Both points A and B indicate a diversification in the uses of print. - Point C suggests that print was used for leisure activities. - Therefore, all the above statements support the claim that the uses of print diversified in urban China by the 17th century. Overall, the evidence presented in points A, B, and C suggests that the uses of print in urban China expanded beyond the traditional realm of scholar-officials and diversified by the 17th century.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 3
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 3
Printing was first developed in China. Some key points to support this answer are: 1. Invention of Woodblock Printing: - The earliest form of printing, known as woodblock printing, was developed in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). - Woodblock printing involved carving characters or images onto wooden blocks, applying ink to the surface, and then pressing the blocks onto paper. - This method allowed for the mass production of texts and images. 2. The Diamond Sutra: - The Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist scripture, is considered the oldest printed book in the world. - It was printed using woodblock printing in China in 868 AD during the Tang Dynasty. - The existence of this printed book provides evidence of the early development of printing in China. 3. Movable Type Printing: - China also pioneered the development of movable type printing, which involved individual characters or letters that could be rearranged to form different texts. - Bi Sheng, a Chinese inventor, is credited with inventing movable type printing using clay characters in the 11th century. - However, this method was not widely adopted in China at the time. 4. Spread of Printing Technology: - The knowledge and techniques of printing eventually spread beyond China to other parts of the world. - Buddhist monks from Korea and Japan, for example, learned about printing during their visits to China and brought the technology back to their own countries. In conclusion, printing was first developed in China, with the invention of woodblock printing during the Tang Dynasty. The development of printing techniques, including movable type printing, revolutionized the dissemination of knowledge and had a profound impact on the world.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 4
Which statement given below is not an explanation of the art form called ‘Ukiyo’?
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 4
Ukiyo-e refers to a style of Japanese woodblock print and painting from the Edo period depicting famous theater actors, beautiful courtesans, city life, travel in romantic landscapes, and erotic scenes.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 5
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 5
Background: Handprinting refers to the ancient method of printing in which paper is pressed against an inked surface to create copies of texts or images.
Origin: The Chinese were pioneers in the development of handprinting techniques.
Timeline: The Chinese started handprinting from the 6th century onwards.
Technique: The Chinese used a method called "rubbing" to print. It involved rubbing paper against the inked surface of wooden blocks to transfer the ink onto the paper.
Significance: Handprinting in China played a crucial role in the dissemination of knowledge, as it allowed for the mass production of books and documents.
Advantages: Handprinting was a more efficient and cost-effective method compared to traditional methods of copying texts by hand.
Evolution: Over time, the handprinting techniques in China evolved, leading to the invention of movable type printing in the 11th century by Bi Sheng.
Impact: The invention of movable type printing revolutionized the printing industry and paved the way for the development of modern printing techniques.
Based on the given options, the correct answer is B: From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of wooden blocks. This option accurately describes the method and timeline of handprinting in China.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 6
China was, for a long time, the major producer of printed material, because :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 6
China's dominance in printed material production Reasons for China being the major producer of printed material:
A: Civil service examinations were held regularly in China to recruit people to civil services
B: Under the sponsorship of the imperial state, textbooks for these examinations were printed in vast numbers
C: The number of examination candidates kept on increasing from the 16th century, so did the print material Explanation:
China's dominance in printed material production can be attributed to several factors: Civil service examinations:
- Regular civil service examinations were conducted in China to recruit individuals for civil services.
- These examinations were crucial for individuals seeking government positions and required extensive study materials. Imperial sponsorship:
- The imperial state in China sponsored the production of textbooks specifically designed for these civil service examinations.
- These textbooks were printed in large quantities to meet the demand of the examination candidates. Increase in examination candidates:
- Starting from the 16th century, the number of individuals taking the civil service examinations in China began to increase significantly.
- As the number of examination candidates grew, so did the demand for printed study materials. All of the above:
- China's dominance in printed material production was a result of the combination of civil service examinations, imperial sponsorship, and the increasing number of examination candidates.
- These factors created a high demand for printed materials, leading to China becoming the major producer of such materials for an extended period of time. In conclusion, China's position as the major producer of printed material was a result of the regular civil service examinations, the imperial sponsorship of textbooks, and the growing number of examination candidates. These factors established a strong demand for printed materials in China's society and contributed to its dominance in this industry.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 7
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 7
The term 'Calligraph' means: A: The art of beautiful printing - This option refers to the art of producing visually appealing and attractive printed materials. - It focuses on the aesthetic aspects of printed works. B: The art of beautiful and stylised writing - This option is correct. - Calligraphy is the art of writing in a visually pleasing and decorative manner. - It involves creating beautiful and stylized letterforms using various writing tools. C: The art of beautiful handprinting - This option is not accurate. - Calligraphy is specifically related to writing and not handprinting. - Handprinting refers to the act of printing by hand, whereas calligraphy emphasizes the art of writing. D: The art of printing an 'accordion book' - This option is not correct. - Calligraphy does not pertain to the printing of accordion books. - Calligraphy primarily focuses on writing techniques and the creation of beautiful letterforms. In conclusion, the term 'Calligraph' means the art of beautiful and stylized writing. It involves the creation of visually appealing letterforms using various writing tools.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 8
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 8
Kitagawa Utamaro Kitagawa Utamaro was a famous Japanese artist born in Edo (now Tokyo) in 1753. He is renowned for his contribution to an art form called "Ukiyo-e," which translates to "pictures of the floating world." Utamaro's works primarily focused on portraying the daily life and beauty of women during the Edo period in Japan. Here are some key points about his life and fame: 1. Early Life and Career: - Utamaro was born in the Kitagawa district of Edo and started his artistic career as an apprentice to a printmaker. - He later became a student of the ukiyo-e master Toriyama Sekien and honed his skills in the art of woodblock printing. 2. Ukiyo-e and Utamaro's Style: - Ukiyo-e was a popular art form during the Edo period, depicting various aspects of urban life, including theater, entertainment, and beautiful women. - Utamaro specialized in portraying women, particularly courtesans and geishas, capturing their grace, elegance, and emotional depth. - His style showcased intricate details, delicate lines, and vibrant colors, making his prints visually striking and aesthetically pleasing. 3. Influence on European Artists: - Utamaro's works had a significant impact on European artists during the late 19th century. - Artists like Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, and Vincent van Gogh were inspired by the beauty and composition of Utamaro's prints. - They adopted elements of ukiyo-e, such as asymmetrical compositions, bold colors, and flattened perspective, into their own works, contributing to the development of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. 4. Fame and Legacy: - Utamaro's fame grew during his lifetime, and he became one of the most renowned ukiyo-e artists of his time. - His prints were highly sought after by collectors, and his depictions of women were particularly popular. - Utamaro's influence on Japanese art and his impact on European artists solidified his place as a legendary figure in the history of art. In conclusion, Kitagawa Utamaro was a Japanese artist known for his exceptional prints and his significant contribution to the ukiyo-e art form. His portrayal of women and his influence on European artists have cemented his fame and legacy in the art world.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 9
The production of manuscripts became possible in Europe because :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 9
Explanation: The production of manuscripts became possible in Europe because: A: The Europeans discovered paper - Paper was not discovered by Europeans, but it was invented by the Chinese during the Han dynasty around 105 AD. B: Just like silk and spices, paper reached Europe via the Arab world - Paper did reach Europe through the Arab world, but it was not the only route through which paper reached Europe. C: Chinese paper reached Europe in the 11th century via the silk route, like silk and spices - This statement is correct. Chinese paper did reach Europe in the 11th century through the Silk Road trade routes, similar to the trade of silk and spices. D: All the above - The correct answer is not "All the above" as option A is incorrect. Therefore, option C is the correct answer as it correctly states that Chinese paper reached Europe in the 11th century via the Silk Road trade routes, similar to the trade of silk and spices.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 10
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 11
The term 'Compositor' means:
Answer: D. A person who composes the text for printing.
Compositor is a term used in the publishing and printing industry to refer to a person who is responsible for composing and arranging the text for printing. The compositor plays a crucial role in typesetting and layout of printed materials, ensuring that the text is organized, formatted, and arranged correctly.
Key Points: - Compositor is not related to composing poems (Option A) or composing lyrics and songs for a play (Option B). - Compositor is also not related to composing music (Option C). - The primary responsibility of a compositor is to compose and arrange the text for printing. - The compositor ensures that the text is organized, formatted, and arranged correctly for the printing process. - Compositors work closely with editors, designers, and printers to ensure the final printed material meets the required standards. - In the digital age, the role of a compositor has evolved to include using desktop publishing software and specialized tools for typesetting and layout. - Compositors may also be involved in proofreading and making corrections to the text before final printing. Conclusion:
The term 'Compositor' refers to a person who composes the text for printing. They are responsible for organizing, formatting, and arranging the text to ensure it is suitable for the printing process.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 12
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 12
Explanation: The term 'Galley' refers to a long, low built ship with one deck, propelled by oars and sails. Here is a detailed explanation of each option: A: A corridor or long passage where family portraits are hung: - This is an incorrect definition of the term 'Galley'. A corridor or long passage where family portraits are hung is commonly known as a gallery, not a galley. B: A metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed: - This is the correct definition of the term 'Galley'. A galley refers to a metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed. It is commonly used in the printing industry. C: A long, low built ship with one deck, propelled by oars and sails: - This is the correct definition of the term 'Galley'. A galley is a type of ship that is long and low built, with one deck. It is propelled by both oars and sails. D: A scarecrow: - This is an incorrect definition of the term 'Galley'. A scarecrow is not related to the term 'Galley' in any way. Therefore, the correct answer is option B: A metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 13
The Print Revolution transformed the lives of people by :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 13
The Print Revolution transformed the lives of people in several ways: Changing their relationship to information and knowledge; with institutions and authorities: - Increased access to printed material allowed individuals to acquire knowledge and information more easily. - People were no longer solely dependent on oral communication or handwritten manuscripts. - The spread of printed books led to the democratization of knowledge, allowing a wider range of people to access information that was previously limited to the elite. - It challenged the authority of religious institutions and monarchies, as individuals could now read and interpret religious texts and political ideas for themselves. By producing cheaper books and producing them at a fast rate: - The invention of the printing press made it possible to produce books at a much faster rate than before. - This led to a significant reduction in the cost of books, making them more affordable for a larger portion of the population. - Cheaper books meant that more people could own and read them, increasing literacy rates and spreading knowledge. Influencing popular perceptions and opening new ways of looking at things: - The availability of printed material allowed for the dissemination of new ideas, scientific discoveries, and philosophical thoughts. - It challenged traditional beliefs and customs, leading to the emergence of new perspectives and ideologies. - The printing press played a crucial role in the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution, as it enabled the spread of innovative ideas and advancements. All of these: - The Print Revolution encompassed all of the above-mentioned aspects, transforming the lives of individuals by changing their relationship with information, producing books at a faster and cheaper rate, and influencing their perceptions and worldview. In conclusion, the Print Revolution had a profound impact on society by revolutionizing the way people accessed and shared information, increasing literacy rates, challenging traditional authorities, and fostering the spread of new ideas.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 14
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 14
Explanation: Definition of Taverns: - Taverns were places where people gathered to drink alcohol, be served food, meet friends, and exchange views. Options: A: Restaurants, where people could eat, drink and be merry - This option accurately describes taverns as places where people could eat, drink, and have a good time. B: Cheap hotels in towns - This option is incorrect because taverns were not primarily hotels. While some taverns may have offered accommodations, their main purpose was to provide food and drink. C: Places where people gathered to drink alcohol, to be served food, to meet friends and exchange views - This option accurately describes taverns as places where people gathered to drink, eat, socialize, and share their opinions. D: Small buildings in a village for a public meeting - This option is incorrect because taverns were not specifically used for public meetings. They were more focused on socializing and enjoying food and drink. Conclusion: Based on the definition and the given options, the correct answer is C: Places where people gathered to drink alcohol, to be served food, meet friends, and exchange views.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 15
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 15
Protestant Reformation was:
A 16th century movement to reform the Catholic Church dominated by Rome: The Protestant Reformation was initiated as a movement to reform certain practices and doctrines within the Catholic Church during the 16th century. This movement was driven by individuals who believed that the church had become corrupt and deviated from its original teachings.
A challenge to the authority of Rome: The Protestant Reformation also challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and its hierarchical structure. Reformers questioned the Pope's authority and emphasized the importance of individual interpretation of the Bible.
A new religion started by Martin Luther: While Martin Luther played a significant role in the Protestant Reformation, it is incorrect to say that he started a new religion. Luther sought to reform the existing Catholic Church rather than establish a separate religious entity.
A movement which started anti-Catholic Christianity: While the Protestant Reformation resulted in the emergence of various Protestant denominations, it is inaccurate to characterize it as an entirely anti-Catholic movement. The reformers aimed to address perceived issues within the Catholic Church rather than completely reject its teachings and traditions.
Therefore, the correct answer is option A: A 16th century movement to reform the Catholic Church dominated by Rome.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 16
‘Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer.’ Whose words are these and what warning is given through them?
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 16
Answer: The words "Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer" are from Mercier, a French novelist of the 18th century. He believed that the printing press is so powerful that it would sweep despotism away. The warning given through these words is that tyrants should be afraid of the power of the virtual writer, which refers to the influence of the written word and the spread of ideas through printed materials. The warning implies that the printed word has the potential to challenge and overthrow oppressive rulers and systems of government. Explanation: Mercier was a French novelist who lived in the 18th century. He was known for his novel "L'An 2440" (The Year 2440), in which he imagines a future utopian society. In this work, Mercier expresses his belief in the power of the printing press to bring about social and political change. He saw the dissemination of ideas through printed materials as a means to challenge and undermine despotic rulers. The phrase "Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer" reflects Mercier's conviction that the written word has the potential to inspire and mobilize people against tyranny. It is a warning to oppressive rulers that they should fear the power of ideas and the ability of writers to reach a wide audience through printed materials. Mercier's belief in the power of the printing press was shared by many Enlightenment thinkers of the time, who saw knowledge and information as tools for progress and social transformation. The printing press allowed for the widespread dissemination of ideas and played a significant role in the spread of Enlightenment ideals and the questioning of traditional authority. In conclusion, the words "Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer" are from Mercier, a French novelist of the 18th century. They serve as a warning to despots and oppressive rulers, highlighting the power of the written word and the potential for ideas to challenge and overthrow tyranny.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 17
Print culture, according to many historians, made people critical and rational because :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 17
Print culture and its impact on critical and rational thinking: - Enlightened thinkers argued for the rule of reason: - Print culture allowed the dissemination of ideas and knowledge, leading to the rise of Enlightenment thinkers. - These thinkers emphasized the importance of reason and logic over blind adherence to tradition and custom. - They encouraged people to critically analyze and question existing beliefs and institutions. - This promoted a more rational and logical approach to understanding the world. - Attack on sacred authority of the Church and despotism of the State: - The availability of printed materials challenged the authority of the Church and the State. - Enlightenment thinkers used print culture to spread their ideas that questioned the divine authority of the Church and the autocratic rule of the State. - This led to a more critical and skeptical attitude towards established religious and political institutions. - Impact of reading the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau: - Voltaire and Rousseau were influential Enlightenment philosophers whose works were widely disseminated through print culture. - Reading their ideas enabled people to see the world from a different perspective. - They advocated for individual freedom, reason, and social equality. - Their writings inspired readers to question societal norms and hierarchies, fostering critical thinking and rationality. - Conclusion: Print culture, through the dissemination of Enlightenment ideas and the challenge it posed to established authorities, played a significant role in fostering critical and rational thinking. By promoting the rule of reason, questioning traditional beliefs, and offering alternative perspectives, print culture empowered individuals to think critically and analyze the world around them.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 18
There was a virtual reading mania in European countries at the end of the 18th century because :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 18
Reasons for the virtual reading mania in European countries at the end of the 18th century:
Churches setting up schools: Churches established schools in villages, which helped increase literacy rates among peasants and artisans. This led to a greater demand for reading materials.
Increase in literacy rates: The literacy rates in Europe rose significantly, reaching levels of 60 to 80 percent. This meant that more people were able to read and thus sought out books for entertainment and knowledge.
Printers producing books: The printing industry experienced growth, resulting in an increase in the production of books. This availability of reading material made it easier for people to access and engage in reading.
Varied reading material: There was a wide range of reading material available during this time, catering to different interests and preferences. This diversity in content attracted readers and contributed to the popularity of reading.
Overall, the combination of improved literacy rates, the establishment of schools, increased book production, and the availability of diverse reading material contributed to the virtual reading mania in European countries at the end of the 18th century.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 19
New forms of popular literature, targeting new audience at the end of the 18th century, were :
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 19
Romances, histories, almanacs, ballads and folktales for entertainment: - During the end of the 18th century, popular literature included various forms of entertainment such as romances, histories, almanacs, ballads, and folktales. - These forms of literature targeted a new audience and provided them with engaging stories, adventures, and folklore. - Romances offered tales of love and chivalry, often set in a mythical or historical context. - Histories provided accounts of past events, both real and fictional, catering to the audience's interest in the past. - Almanacs were popular for their collection of useful information, including calendars, weather forecasts, agricultural advice, and astronomical data. - Ballads and folktales were traditional forms of storytelling, often passed down through generations, and were enjoyed for their narrative and lyrical qualities. Newspapers and journals combining current affairs (wars and trade) with entertainment: - Another form of popular literature during this period was newspapers and journals. - These publications combined current affairs, such as news about wars and trade, with entertainment. - Newspapers reported on significant events and provided updates on the political and social climate of the time. - Journals included articles on a wide range of topics, including literature, science, and philosophy, catering to the intellectual interests of the readers. - These publications aimed to inform and entertain the readers, offering a mix of informative and engaging content. Ideas of scientists and philosophers included in popular literature: - The end of the 18th century also saw the inclusion of ideas from scientists and philosophers in popular literature. - As the Enlightenment period gained momentum, there was a growing interest in scientific discoveries and philosophical ideas. - Popular literature started incorporating these ideas, making them accessible to a wider audience. - Works of fiction and non-fiction began to explore scientific concepts, philosophical theories, and moral dilemmas. - This inclusion of intellectual ideas in popular literature helped shape the cultural and intellectual landscape of the time. All the above: - All of the mentioned forms of popular literature were present at the end of the 18th century. - Romances, histories, almanacs, ballads, and folktales provided entertainment to the new audience. - Newspapers and journals combined current affairs with entertainment, keeping the readers informed and engaged. - The ideas of scientists and philosophers were also included in popular literature, reflecting the intellectual curiosity of the time. - Therefore, the correct answer is D: All the above.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 20
Which of the following statements does not support the view of some historians that Print Culture was the basis for the French Revolution?
Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 4 - Question 20
Some historians think that print culture created the basis for the French Revolution because (i) Printing of the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire and Rousseau led to them being read by many people. As these writers attacked the despotic rulers and the authority of the Church, the readers saw the world through eyes that were questioning, critical and rational
(ii) Print spawned a dialogue and debate culture in which all institutions, norms and values were discussed and re-evaluated.
(iii) By the 1780s, a lot of literature criticizing and mocking the royalty. The underground circulation of such literature increased hostile sentiments against the monarchy.
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