20 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE - Test: Natural Vegetation & Wildlife- 2
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Explanation: Introduction: Tropical rain forests are known for their dense vegetation and high levels of rainfall. The term "evergreen" is often used to describe these forests because the trees in these forests maintain their green foliage throughout the year. However, it is important to note that the trees in tropical rain forests do shed their leaves, but not all at once like deciduous trees. Key Point: The shedding of leaves in tropical rain forests occurs in a more random manner rather than in a particular season. Reasoning: 1. Tropical rain forests have a consistent climate with high levels of rainfall and warm temperatures throughout the year. 2. Due to this consistent climate, the trees in these forests can retain their leaves for longer periods compared to trees in other ecosystems. 3. However, the leaves of the trees in tropical rain forests do eventually shed. 4. The shedding of leaves in these forests is not synchronized like in deciduous forests, where trees shed their leaves in a particular season. 5. Instead, the shedding of leaves in tropical rain forests occurs throughout the year, but at different times for different trees. 6. This random shedding of leaves ensures that there is always a continuous supply of nutrients for the forest ecosystem. Conclusion: In conclusion, tropical rain forests are referred to as evergreen because their trees maintain their green foliage throughout the year. However, these trees do shed their leaves, but the shedding occurs in a more random manner rather than in a particular season.
India's Bio-Reserves: India is known for its rich biodiversity and has several bio-reserves that are recognized internationally. A bio-reserve is an area designated for the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of natural resources. Among the options given, "Nilgiri" is indeed a bio-reserve of India. Nilgiri Bio-Reserve: - Located in the Western Ghats of India, the Nilgiri Bio-Reserve is spread across the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka. - It is one of the largest bio-reserves in India and encompasses a diverse range of ecosystems including forests, grasslands, wetlands, and rivers. - The bio-reserve is home to numerous plant and animal species, many of which are endemic and endangered. - It is known for its rich floral diversity, with over 3,300 species of flowering plants, including several rare and endemic species. - The Nilgiri Bio-Reserve is also a haven for wildlife, with several protected areas within its boundaries, such as the Nilgiri Wildlife Sanctuary and Silent Valley National Park. - Important animal species found in the bio-reserve include the Nilgiri tahr, Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, and several species of primates and birds. - The region is of great ecological significance and has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Therefore, the correct answer is Option B: Nilgiri.
Answer: There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves in the Tropical Evergreen Forests. Here is a detailed explanation: Tropical Evergreen Forests: - These forests are found in regions near the equator, where the climate is warm and receives abundant rainfall throughout the year. - The temperature in these forests remains relatively constant with little seasonal variation. - Due to the consistent warmth and moisture, the trees in tropical evergreen forests do not have a specific time to shed their leaves. - Instead, they shed leaves throughout the year as part of their natural life cycle. - The continuous leaf shedding and regrowth create a dense canopy, providing a suitable habitat for a diverse range of plant and animal species. Tropical Deciduous Forests: - These forests are found in regions with distinct wet and dry seasons. - During the dry season, which is characterized by low rainfall and high temperatures, the trees shed their leaves to conserve water and reduce the risk of damage from drought and heat. - The shedding of leaves in tropical deciduous forests typically occurs during the dry season. Tropical Thorn Forests: - These forests are found in arid and semi-arid regions with low rainfall and high temperatures. - The trees in tropical thorn forests have adapted to survive in such harsh conditions. - They may shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve water and minimize water loss through transpiration. Montane Forests: - Montane forests are found in mountainous regions with high elevations. - The trees in montane forests may shed their leaves during the winter season when temperatures are colder and resources are limited. - This shedding of leaves helps the trees conserve energy and survive the harsh winter conditions. Conclusion: Among the given options, the Tropical Evergreen Forests do not have a definite time for trees to shed their leaves. The continuous shedding and regrowth of leaves occur throughout the year in these forests.
Tropical deciduous in India is more commonly known as: The correct answer is Monsoon forest. Explanation: Tropical deciduous forests are a type of vegetation found in India. These forests are characterized by the shedding of leaves during a particular season. Here is a detailed explanation of the different options: A. Monsoon forest: - Monsoon forests are also known as tropical seasonal forests or dry forests. - They are found in regions with a distinct monsoon climate, characterized by a wet and dry season. - These forests are common in regions such as central India, the Western Ghats, and parts of the Eastern Ghats. B. Mangrove forest: - Mangrove forests are coastal wetland ecosystems characterized by salt-tolerant trees and shrubs. - They are found in tropical and subtropical regions with sheltered coastlines. - Mangrove forests are commonly found in the Sundarbans of India and Bangladesh. C. Thorn forest: - Thorn forests, also known as thorn scrub forests, are dry forests characterized by thorny shrubs and trees. - They are found in arid and semi-arid regions with low rainfall. - Thorn forests are commonly found in the western regions of India, such as Rajasthan and Gujarat. D. None of these: - This option is incorrect as the correct answer is Monsoon forest. In conclusion, the tropical deciduous in India is more commonly known as Monsoon forest. These forests are characterized by the shedding of leaves during a particular season and are common in regions with a distinct monsoon climate. Other options such as Mangrove forests and Thorn forests have different characteristics and are found in specific regions of India.
Explanation: The correct statement about natural vegetation is option C: a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. Here's a detailed explanation: - Option A: A plant community that is grown in the fields by the farmers This statement is incorrect because natural vegetation refers to plant communities that have grown naturally without human intervention. Vegetation grown in fields by farmers is cultivated vegetation, not natural vegetation. - Option B: A plant community that is grown at home This statement is also incorrect because natural vegetation does not refer to plants grown at home. It specifically refers to vegetation that has grown in natural habitats without human aid. - Option C: A plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time This statement is the correct definition of natural vegetation. It emphasizes that natural vegetation is self-sustaining and has not been influenced or disturbed by human activities. - Option D: A plant community which has grown with human aid but left undisturbed for a long time This statement is incorrect because natural vegetation is characterized by its growth without human aid. The presence of human assistance in its growth would make it cultivated vegetation, not natural vegetation. In summary, option C is the correct statement because it accurately describes the concept of natural vegetation as plant communities that have grown naturally without human intervention and have been undisturbed by humans for a long time.
Coniferous trees have conical shape and leaves have needle like structure as it helps in adaptation to the environment they thrive. The cone shape allows snow to slide down and not accumulate on the branches and leaves.
Manas is the bio-reserve of India that is not included in the world network of bioreserve.
Dihang-dibang: It is located in Arunachal Pradesh. Rare mammals such as Mishmi takin, red goral, musk deer, red panda, Asiatic black bear, etc. can be spotted here.
Gulf of Mannar: It lies between the south-eastern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka, in the Coromandel Coast Region. 117 hard coral species have been recorded in the Gulf of Mannar. Sea turtles are frequent visitors to the gulf as are sharks, dugongs, and dolphins. It is rich in marine wealth.
Nanda Devi: It is located in Himalayan ranges. It has variety of flora. It mainly homes a large variety of flora.
Soils that support cactus and thorny bushes: Alluvial soils: - Alluvial soils are formed by the deposition of sediments brought by rivers and streams. - They are usually fertile and well-drained, making them suitable for various types of vegetation. - However, cacti and thorny bushes prefer drier conditions and well-drained soil, so alluvial soils may not be the best choice for them. Black soils: - Black soils, also known as regur or black cotton soils, are clayey soils found in certain regions. - They have good water-holding capacity and are known for their fertility. - However, these soils tend to have poor drainage, which may not be suitable for cacti and thorny bushes that require well-drained soil. Red soils: - Red soils are formed by weathering of rocks and are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions. - They are well-drained and moderately fertile. - While cacti and thorny bushes can tolerate well-drained soil, red soils may not provide the arid conditions and low moisture content that these plants prefer. Sandy soils: - Sandy soils have large particles and are well-drained, allowing water to flow through them easily. - They have low water-holding capacity and are often infertile. - These conditions mimic the arid and well-drained environments preferred by cacti and thorny bushes, making sandy soils a suitable choice for their growth. Therefore, the correct answer is D: Sandy soils as they provide the arid conditions and well-drained characteristics that support the growth of cactus and thorny bushes.
India's Wide Variety of Vegetation India has a wide variety of vegetation due to its varied climatic conditions, physical conditions, and regional variation. Climatic Conditions: - India has a diverse climate, ranging from tropical in the south to alpine in the Himalayas, which provides different conditions for plant growth. - The monsoon system, with its distinct wet and dry seasons, influences the distribution and growth of vegetation across the country. - This variation in climate allows for the growth of different types of plants, from tropical rainforests in the Western Ghats to alpine meadows in the Himalayas. Physical Conditions: - The diverse topography of India, including mountains, plains, plateaus, and coastal areas, creates different habitats for plants. - The presence of rivers, lakes, and marshlands provides wetland habitats for various types of vegetation. - Different soil types, such as alluvial, red, and laterite soils, support the growth of different plant species. Regional Variation: - India's vast size and geographical diversity result in regional variations in vegetation. - Different states and regions have their own unique flora, adapted to the local conditions. - For example, the Western Ghats have a high level of biodiversity and are known for their rich vegetation, while the Thar Desert in Rajasthan has specialized desert vegetation. All of the Above: - The wide variety of vegetation in India is a result of a combination of climatic conditions, physical conditions, and regional variation. - These factors interact and influence each other, creating diverse ecosystems and supporting a wide range of plant species. Therefore, the correct answer is B: Climatic conditions.
Jim Corbett: Jim Corbett National Park is known for its tiger population and is located in Uttarakhand, India. It is not a wildlife sanctuary specifically for bears.
Dachigam: Dachigam National Park, located in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is a wildlife sanctuary known for its population of the endangered Kashmir stag or hangul. It is also home to the Himalayan black bear, making it the correct answer.
Manas: Manas National Park, located in Assam, India, is known for its diverse flora and fauna, including the Indian rhinoceros and Bengal tiger. While it may have some bear species, it is not primarily a wildlife sanctuary for bears.
Rajaji National Park: Rajaji National Park, located in Uttarakhand, India, is known for its population of elephants and tigers. It is not specifically a wildlife sanctuary for bears.
Therefore, the correct answer is Dachigam, as it is a wildlife sanctuary in Jammu and Kashmir focused on the conservation of the Himalayan black bear.
The Most Majestic Mammal: Elephant Introduction: When it comes to majesty among mammals, the elephant undoubtedly stands out. Its impressive size, strength, and gracefulness make it a symbol of awe and wonder. Let's explore the reasons why the elephant is considered the most majestic animal among mammals. 1. Size and Strength: - The elephant is the largest land animal, with an average weight of 5,000 kg to 7,000 kg. - Its sheer size and strength command attention and respect. - The elephant's strong and muscular trunk, as well as its tusks, add to its majestic appearance. 2. Grace and Elegance: - Despite its massive size, the elephant moves with astonishing grace and elegance. - It can walk silently without disturbing the environment, showcasing a sense of poise and control. - The elephant's gentle and deliberate movements further enhance its majestic aura. 3. Intelligence and Social Behavior: - Elephants are known for their high level of intelligence and complex social structure. - They exhibit a wide range of emotions, including joy, grief, and empathy, which adds to their majestic presence. - The elephant's ability to communicate, problem-solve, and display a strong sense of familial bond is awe-inspiring. 4. Cultural Significance: - Throughout history, elephants have held significant cultural value in various civilizations. - They are often associated with wisdom, power, and spirituality, further elevating their majestic status. - The elephant's role in religious ceremonies, festivals, and folklore adds to its grandeur. Conclusion: In conclusion, while all the animals listed have their own unique qualities, the elephant emerges as the most majestic among mammals. Its size, strength, grace, intelligence, and cultural significance contribute to its regal presence. Whether observed in the wild or admired in captivity, the elephant's majestic aura leaves a lasting impression on anyone fortunate enough to witness it.
Answer: The Indian Government has taken several steps to conserve forests in the country. One of these steps is the setting up of the Forest Research Institute at Dehradun. Here is a detailed explanation of this initiative: Importance of Forest Research Institute: - The Forest Research Institute (FRI) is a premier institution in the field of forestry research and education in India. - It plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable forest management practices and conservation efforts. - The institute conducts research on various aspects of forestry, such as biodiversity conservation, forest ecology, tree improvement, and forest products utilization. Location of the Forest Research Institute: - The Forest Research Institute is located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand. - Dehradun is a city nestled in the foothills of the Himalayas and is known for its rich biodiversity and forest cover. - The location of FRI in Dehradun provides a conducive environment for conducting research and studying the diverse forest ecosystems in the region. Activities and Initiatives: - The Forest Research Institute conducts research on various aspects related to forest conservation and management. - It collaborates with other research institutions, universities, and government agencies to address key challenges in forest conservation. - The institute also offers training programs, workshops, and seminars to disseminate knowledge and promote awareness about sustainable forestry practices. - FRI has a museum, herbarium, and library that house a vast collection of botanical specimens, books, and research papers related to forestry. Impact and Significance: - The establishment of the Forest Research Institute has contributed significantly to the understanding and conservation of forests in India. - The research conducted at FRI has helped in developing effective strategies for forest management, afforestation, and restoration of degraded forest areas. - The institute's findings and recommendations have influenced policies and practices related to forest conservation in the country. In conclusion, the setting up of the Forest Research Institute at Dehradun by the Indian Government showcases its commitment to conserving and sustainably managing the country's forests. The institute's research and initiatives play a vital role in enhancing knowledge, promoting awareness, and implementing effective measures for forest conservation.
Moist Tropical Deciduous Forests in Eastern and Central India
The statement that moist tropical deciduous forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of India because these areas experience 100 to 200 cm of annual rainfall is true.
Explanation: - Moist tropical deciduous forests are a type of forest ecosystem found in regions with a distinct wet and dry season. - These forests are characterized by the shedding of leaves during the dry season to conserve water and reduce transpiration. - The eastern and central parts of India, including states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha, fall within the range of the moist tropical deciduous forest biome. - These regions receive a significant amount of rainfall, ranging from 100 to 200 cm annually. - The high rainfall supports the growth of diverse vegetation, including deciduous trees, which shed their leaves during the dry season. - The availability of water throughout the year and the favorable climatic conditions make the eastern and central parts of India suitable for the development of moist tropical deciduous forests. - The forests in these areas are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including species like sal, teak, banyan, elephants, tigers, and deer. Therefore, it can be concluded that moist tropical deciduous forests are more prominent in the eastern and central parts of India due to the significant annual rainfall experienced in these regions.
Camels are primarily found in the following areas:
Thar Desert: The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is located in northwestern India and southeastern Pakistan. It is one of the largest deserts in the world and serves as a natural habitat for camels.
Northern Plains: Camels can also be found in the northern plains of India, which includes regions like Punjab, Haryana, and parts of Rajasthan.
Camels are not found in the following areas:
Himalayas: The Himalayas, being a mountainous region, is not suitable for camels due to the harsh terrain and extreme cold temperatures.
Andaman & Nicobar Islands: These islands, located in the Bay of Bengal, are not a natural habitat for camels as they are tropical rainforest areas with a different ecosystem.
Coniferous trees are a type of evergreen tree that is typically found in colder regions. They are adapted to survive in harsh climates and have needle-like leaves. The altitude at which coniferous trees are found can vary depending on various factors such as climate, latitude, and species. However, they are generally found at higher altitudes due to the cooler temperatures and suitable growing conditions.
Understanding the Altitude Range Options
In the given options, we have four altitude ranges to consider:
Option A: 1500 m - 3000 m
This option suggests that coniferous trees can be found at altitudes ranging from 1500 meters to 3000 meters.
Option B: 1000 m - 1500 m
This option suggests that coniferous trees can be found at altitudes ranging from 1000 meters to 1500 meters.
Option C: 3500 m - 4000 m
This option suggests that coniferous trees can be found at altitudes ranging from 3500 meters to 4000 meters.
Option D: All the above
This option suggests that coniferous trees can be found at all of the altitude ranges mentioned above.
Determining the Correct Answer
To determine the correct answer, we need to consider the general altitude range at which coniferous trees are typically found. Based on scientific knowledge and research, we can conclude that:
- Coniferous trees are commonly found in mountainous regions. - They thrive in cooler temperatures and are adapted to survive in harsh climates. - The altitude range of 1500 meters to 3000 meters is a suitable range for the growth of coniferous trees. - Altitude ranges below 1500 meters may not provide the optimal conditions for the growth of coniferous trees. - Altitude ranges above 3000 meters may have extreme conditions that are unsuitable for the growth of most coniferous trees. Conclusion
Based on the above information, we can conclude that the correct answer is:
Answer: A. 1500 m - 3000 m
This is the most suitable altitude range for the growth of coniferous trees, although it's important to note that there can be some variations depending on specific species and environmental factors.
False The statement that rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses, and camels are mostly found in mountain forests is false. These animals are not typically found in mountain forests. Here is a detailed explanation: 1. Rats, mice, and rabbits: These small mammals are adaptable and can be found in a variety of habitats, including fields, grasslands, woodlands, and even urban areas. While they may occasionally inhabit mountainous regions, they are not predominantly found in mountain forests. 2. Fox and wolf: Foxes and wolves are more commonly found in grasslands, forests, and open habitats, rather than mountain forests. They prefer areas where they can hunt for prey and have enough space to roam. 3. Tiger and lion: These big cats are typically found in grasslands and dense forests, but they are not commonly associated with mountain forests. Tigers are mainly found in tropical rainforests and grasslands, while lions are found in savannas and open woodlands. 4. Wild ass, horses, and camels: These animals are adapted to arid and semi-arid environments such as deserts and grasslands. While they may inhabit some mountainous regions, they are not primarily associated with mountain forests. In conclusion, the statement that these animals are mostly found in mountain forests is false. They have different habitat preferences and are more commonly found in other types of environments.
In the Ganga Brahmaputra delta, Sundari trees are found which provide durable hard timber.
Location: The Ganga Brahmaputra delta is a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, where the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers converge.
Sundari Trees: Sundari trees, scientifically known as Heritiera fomes, are native to the Sundarbans, which is a mangrove forest located in the Ganga Brahmaputra delta.
Durable Hard Timber: Sundari trees are highly valued for their timber, which is known for its durability and hardness. The wood is resistant to decay and can withstand harsh environmental conditions.
Commercial Importance: Due to the quality of its timber, Sundari trees are extensively harvested for commercial purposes. The wood is used in construction, shipbuilding, furniture making, and various other applications.
Ecosystem Impact: The Sundarbans mangrove forest, which is dominated by Sundari trees, plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of the region. It provides habitat to numerous species of plants and animals, including the Royal Bengal tiger.
Therefore, the statement that Sundari trees are found in the Ganga Brahmaputra delta and provide durable hard timber is true.
The natural vegetation and wildlife in India India belongs to the category of being one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries in the world. This means that it is incredibly rich in terms of natural vegetation and wildlife. Here's a detailed explanation: 1. Mega Biodiversity Country: - India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries in the world, which is a prestigious designation given to countries that have a high diversity of plant and animal species. - This indicates that India has a wide range of ecosystems, habitats, and species, making it a hotspot for biodiversity. 2. Rich Wildlife: - India is renowned for its rich and diverse wildlife. It is home to several iconic and endangered species, such as tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, lions, and many more. - The country has various national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and protected areas that provide habitats for these wildlife species. 3. Forest Cover: - While India may not have the greatest forest cover in the world, it still has significant forested areas. Forests cover approximately 24% of the country's total land area. - These forests are crucial for the conservation of biodiversity and support various flora and fauna. 4. Biodiversity Hotspots: - India has several recognized biodiversity hotspots, including the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas. - These hotspots are regions with exceptionally high levels of species richness and endemism, making them globally significant for conservation efforts. Conclusion: In conclusion, India is a mega biodiversity country with rich wildlife and significant forest cover. It is home to diverse ecosystems and species, making it an important global hotspot for biodiversity conservation.
Explanation: The statement given is true. Here is a detailed explanation: Rainfall in India: - India experiences two main monsoons: the south-west monsoon and the northeast monsoon. - The south-west monsoon occurs from June to September, while the northeast monsoon occurs from October to December. - These monsoons are responsible for bringing the majority of rainfall to India. South-west Monsoon: - The south-west monsoon is the primary source of rainfall in India. - It begins in June and progresses from the southwest to the northeast. - It brings rainfall to most parts of the country, including the western coast, central India, northern plains, and the northeastern region. Retreating Northeast Monsoon: - The retreating northeast monsoon occurs from October to December. - It is the secondary source of rainfall in India. - This monsoon brings rainfall to the southern peninsula, including Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Conclusion: - The statement is true. In India, almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing south-west monsoon (June to September) and the retreating northeast monsoons (October to December).
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