10 Questions MCQ Test Indian Economy for UPSC CSE - Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1
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How many people were poor in India between 2011-12?
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 3
Number of Poor People in India between 2011-12 To determine the number of people who were poor in India between 2011-12, we can refer to the official data provided by the Government of India. The poverty estimates during this period were derived from the data collected by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). Key Points: - According to the official poverty estimates released by the Planning Commission of India, the number of poor people in India during 2011-12 was approximately 27 crore. - The poverty line was defined based on the consumption expenditure of individuals and households. Those whose consumption expenditure fell below a specified threshold were considered as poor. - The poverty estimates were derived using the methodology recommended by the Tendulkar Committee, which took into account various factors such as food consumption, non-food expenditure, and inflation rates. - The estimates were based on the data collected through various rounds of the NSSO survey, which covered a representative sample of households across different states and socio-economic groups in India. - It is important to note that the poverty estimates may vary depending on the methodology and threshold used to define poverty. Different committees and organizations may have different criteria for measuring poverty. - The number of poor people in India has been a subject of debate and discussion, and there may be variations in estimates provided by different sources. However, the figure of 27 crore is widely accepted as the official estimate for the number of poor people in India during 2011-12. Conclusion: Based on the official poverty estimates released by the Planning Commission of India, approximately 27 crore people were considered poor in India between 2011-12. It is crucial to address the issue of poverty in the country and implement measures to uplift the living standards of the underprivileged sections of society.
Vulnerability to poverty is determined by the options for finding an alternative living in terms of:
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 4
Vulnerability to Poverty and its Determinants Introduction: Vulnerability to poverty refers to the likelihood of an individual or a group falling into poverty due to various factors. The options for finding an alternative living play a significant role in determining vulnerability to poverty. These options include assets, education, and health. Determinants of Vulnerability to Poverty: The vulnerability to poverty is determined by several factors, including: 1. Assets: - The possession of assets such as land, property, or financial resources provides individuals with a safety net and alternative means of generating income. - Lack of assets increases the vulnerability to poverty as individuals have limited options to overcome economic shocks or income fluctuations. 2. Education: - Education plays a vital role in reducing vulnerability to poverty by expanding opportunities for employment and income generation. - Lack of education limits individuals' access to better job prospects and higher incomes, increasing their vulnerability to poverty. 3. Health: - Good health is essential for individuals to engage in productive activities and earn a sustainable income. - Poor health or lack of access to healthcare services increases the chances of falling into poverty due to medical expenses and reduced productivity. Conclusion: The vulnerability to poverty is determined by the options available for finding an alternative living. Assets, education, and health are three key determinants that significantly influence an individual's vulnerability to poverty. Enhancing access to assets, promoting education, and improving healthcare services are crucial strategies to reduce vulnerability and promote poverty alleviation.
In the year 2011 - 12, the poverty line for a person was fixed as _________.
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 5
In the year 2011 - 12, the poverty line for a person was fixed at Rs 816 for rural areas. For urban areas it is Rs. 1000 under Tendulkar methodology. The poverty line of urban is quite high due to the high prices of goods and services in urban areas. In 2011-12, the number of poor is 26.92 crore people.
In some cases, women, elderly people and female infants are denied equal access to resources available to the family.
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 6
Women, elderly people, and female infants being denied equal access to resources within a family is a reality in some cases. This can be due to various factors such as cultural norms, traditional gender roles, and discriminatory practices.
Reasons for unequal access to resources: - Patriarchal society: In societies where men hold dominant positions, women and female infants may be marginalized and denied equal access to resources. - Gender-based discrimination: Discrimination against women and female infants based on their gender can lead to unequal access to resources. - Ageism: Elderly people, especially elderly women, may face neglect or discrimination within families, resulting in limited access to resources. - Cultural norms and traditions: Some cultural norms and traditions prioritize the needs and rights of male family members over females, leading to unequal distribution of resources.
Consequences of unequal access to resources: - Limited education and opportunities: Women and female infants may not have equal access to education and employment opportunities, hindering their personal development and potential. - Health disparities: Limited access to healthcare services and nutritious food can adversely affect the well-being and health outcomes of women, elderly people, and female infants. - Poverty and economic dependence: Unequal access to resources can perpetuate cycles of poverty and economic dependence on male family members.
Efforts to address the issue: - Legal reforms: Governments can enact laws and policies that promote gender equality and protect the rights of women, elderly people, and female infants. - Awareness and education: Raising awareness about the importance of gender equality and challenging discriminatory attitudes and practices can help address the issue. - Empowerment programs: Providing opportunities for skill development, entrepreneurship, and financial independence can empower women and elderly people to assert their rights and access resources. - Support networks and services: Establishing support networks, shelters, and social services can provide assistance and protection for those affected by unequal access to resources. In conclusion, it is evident that in some cases, women, elderly people, and female infants are denied equal access to resources within a family. This issue can have significant social, economic, and health consequences, and efforts should be made to address and rectify these inequalities.
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 7
Social exclusion denies certain individuals:
There are several ways in which social exclusion denies certain individuals. These include: 1. Facilities: - Social exclusion can deny individuals access to essential facilities that are necessary for their well-being and development. - This can include basic amenities such as healthcare, clean water, sanitation, and education. - By denying individuals access to these facilities, social exclusion perpetuates inequalities and prevents them from reaching their full potential. 2. Benefits: - Social exclusion can also deny individuals access to social benefits and welfare programs. - This can include financial assistance, housing support, food aid, and employment opportunities. - By excluding individuals from these benefits, social exclusion deepens their vulnerability and perpetuates poverty and inequality. 3. Opportunities: - Social exclusion denies individuals equal opportunities in various aspects of life. - This can include educational opportunities, employment opportunities, and social participation. - By limiting opportunities, social exclusion hinders individuals from realizing their aspirations and contributing fully to society. 4. All of the above: - Social exclusion denies individuals facilities, benefits, and opportunities, making option D the correct answer. - By denying individuals these essential elements, social exclusion perpetuates inequality, marginalization, and discrimination. In conclusion, social exclusion denies certain individuals access to facilities, benefits, and opportunities. It is crucial to address social exclusion and work towards creating an inclusive society that ensures equal rights and opportunities for all.
Poverty as defined by World Bank implies living below:
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 8
Definition of Poverty by World Bank: - Poverty as defined by the World Bank refers to living below a certain income level. Income Levels for Poverty: - The World Bank defines poverty as living below $1.90 per day. Options Given: A: $1.90 per day B: $100 per month C: $10 per day D: $100 per day Correct Answer: The correct answer is A, $1.90 per day. Explanation: - The World Bank's definition of poverty is based on the income level of individuals. - According to the World Bank, individuals living below $1.90 per day are considered to be living in poverty. - Option A, $1.90 per day, aligns with the World Bank's definition and is therefore the correct answer. - Option B, $100 per month, does not meet the World Bank's definition of poverty as it is a monthly income and not a daily income. - Option C, $10 per day, is higher than the World Bank's poverty line of $1.90 per day. - Option D, $100 per day, is much higher than the World Bank's poverty line of $1.90 per day. Therefore, the correct answer is A, $1.90 per day, as defined by the World Bank.
A number of poor people in Chins have come down from 88.3 per cent in 1981 to 1.9 per cent in 2013.
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 9
Statement: A number of poor people in China have come down from 88.3 per cent in 1981 to 1.9 per cent in 2013.
Here is a detailed explanation of the given statement: 1. Historical Data: In 1981, the percentage of poor people in China was 88.3%. 2. Decrease Over Time: Over the years, there has been a significant decrease in the number of poor people in China. 3. Data in 2013: In 2013, the percentage of poor people in China was recorded to be 1.9%. 4. Conclusion: Based on the data provided, the statement is true. The number of poor people in China has indeed decreased from 88.3% in 1981 to 1.9% in 2013. Reasoning: The decrease in the percentage of poor people in China can be attributed to various factors such as economic growth, government policies, poverty alleviation programs, and improvements in living standards. Overall, the significant reduction in poverty rates in China over the years is a testament to the country's efforts in addressing poverty and improving the well-being of its population.
How many people in India live below the poverty line?
Detailed Solution for Test: Poverty as a Challenge- 1 - Question 10
Number of People Living Below the Poverty Line in India: According to recent data, the number of people living below the poverty line in India is estimated to be around 27 crores (or 270 million). Explanation: To understand the answer in detail, let's break it down further: 1. Definition of Poverty Line: - The poverty line is the minimum level of income or consumption required to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, and education. - It is used as a threshold to determine the number of people living in poverty. 2. Poverty Line in India: - In India, the poverty line is defined using the Tendulkar Poverty Line, which was formulated by a government-appointed committee led by economist Suresh Tendulkar. - The poverty line is updated periodically to account for changes in prices and consumption patterns. 3. Estimation of People Below Poverty Line: - The estimation of the number of people living below the poverty line is based on various surveys and data collection methods. - The latest available data suggests that approximately 27 crores (or 270 million) people in India live below the poverty line. 4. Factors Affecting Poverty: - Poverty in India is influenced by various factors such as income inequality, unemployment, lack of access to education and healthcare, and social discrimination. - Efforts are being made by the government and various organizations to alleviate poverty through measures like poverty eradication programs, skill development initiatives, and inclusive growth strategies. 5. Importance of Poverty Alleviation: - Reducing poverty is crucial for achieving sustainable development and ensuring social justice. - It requires a multi-dimensional approach that addresses not only income disparities but also provides opportunities for education, healthcare, and livelihoods. Therefore, the estimated number of people living below the poverty line in India is around 27 crores (or 270 million). It is important to continue working towards poverty alleviation through comprehensive strategies and policies.
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