10 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Test: Democracy & Diversity - 2
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The correct answer is B: wore a human right badge. Peter Norman showed his support to the protesting American athletes during the award ceremony of the Mexico Olympics by wearing a human rights badge. Here is a detailed explanation: - Peter Norman was an Australian sprinter who competed in the 1968 Mexico Olympics. - During the award ceremony for the 200-meter race, American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists in a Black Power salute to protest racial inequality and human rights issues in the United States. - Peter Norman, who finished in third place, showed his solidarity and support for their cause by wearing a human rights badge on his jacket. - The badge represented his belief in the importance of human rights and equality for all individuals, regardless of race. - Norman's act of solidarity was significant and courageous, as it went against the prevailing social and political norms of the time. - His gesture demonstrated his empathy and understanding of the struggles faced by minority communities and his willingness to stand up for what he believed in. - However, Norman faced backlash and criticism in his home country for his support of the athletes' protest. - Despite the controversy, Norman's act has since been recognized and celebrated as a symbol of solidarity and social activism.
The correct answer is B: 53 per cent. Explanation: Here is a detailed breakdown of the religious composition in Northern Ireland: 1. Protestantism: - Northern Ireland has a significant Protestant population, with a majority of them identifying as either members of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland or the Church of Ireland (Anglicans). - Other Protestant denominations include Methodists, Baptists, and various independent evangelical churches. - The Protestant community in Northern Ireland has historically been associated with unionism and support for remaining part of the United Kingdom. 2. Catholicism: - The Catholic community in Northern Ireland is the largest religious group and is predominantly associated with Irish nationalism and support for a united Ireland. - The Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination in Northern Ireland, with the majority of Catholics belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. 3. Other Religions: - There are also smaller religious communities in Northern Ireland, including Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and Jews. - However, these groups make up a relatively small percentage of the population compared to Protestants and Catholics. Based on the available data and surveys, the percentage of the population in Northern Ireland that follows Protestantism is approximately 53 per cent.
Background: The French Revolution was a period of radical social and political change in France from 1789 to 1799. It was characterized by the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy, the rise of radical political factions, and the eventual establishment of the First French Republic. The revolution had a profound impact on French society and influenced political movements around the world. Influence of French Philosophers: During the Enlightenment period, French philosophers played a significant role in shaping the ideas and ideals that led to the French Revolution. These thinkers challenged the traditional authority of the monarchy and advocated for the principles of liberty, equality, and popular sovereignty. One of the most influential philosophers of this time was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau's Influence: Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a highly influential philosopher who had a profound impact on the development of political and social thought during the Enlightenment. His ideas, particularly those expressed in his famous work "The Social Contract," greatly influenced the French Revolution. Here's how Rousseau's philosophy influenced the revolution: - General Will: Rousseau's concept of the general will, which refers to the collective will of the people as a whole, became a central idea in revolutionary thought. It emphasized the idea that political authority should be derived from the consent of the governed and that the interests of the community should take precedence over individual interests. - Popular Sovereignty: Rousseau's idea of popular sovereignty, the notion that ultimate political authority rests with the people, also had a significant impact on the revolution. It provided a philosophical basis for the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic. - Equality: Rousseau's emphasis on the inherent equality of all individuals challenged the hierarchical social structure of the Ancien Régime. This idea of equality resonated with the revolutionaries, who sought to dismantle the privileges of the nobility and create a more egalitarian society. Conclusion: While other philosophers such as Montesquieu also contributed to the intellectual climate that led to the French Revolution, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's ideas had a particularly profound impact. His concepts of the general will, popular sovereignty, and equality provided the philosophical underpinnings for the revolutionary ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity. Rousseau's influence can be seen in the revolutionary documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and in the political and social changes that occurred during the revolution. Therefore, the correct answer is A: Rousseau.
Homogenous society A homogenous society refers to a society where there are no significant ethnic differences and the people share similar characteristics, values, and culture. Here is a detailed explanation: Characteristics of a homogenous society: - Ethnic similarity: In a homogenous society, the majority of the population belongs to the same ethnic group or shares similar ethnic backgrounds. - Cultural unity: The people in a homogenous society have similar cultural practices, traditions, and norms. They often share a common language, religion, and customs. - Social cohesion: The absence of significant ethnic differences leads to a sense of unity and social cohesion among the people. There is a common bond and understanding among the members of the society. - Shared values: The members of a homogenous society typically share similar values, beliefs, and attitudes towards various aspects of life, such as family, education, and work. - Limited diversity: Due to the lack of significant ethnic differences, there is limited diversity in terms of appearance, language, and cultural practices within a homogenous society. Examples of homogenous societies: - Japan: Japan is often considered a homogenous society, with the majority of the population being ethnically Japanese and sharing a common language and culture. - Iceland: Iceland is another example of a homogenous society, with a population that is primarily of Icelandic descent and shares a common language and cultural heritage. - Finland: Finland is known for its homogenous society, with a majority of the population being Finnish and sharing a common language and cultural traditions. Advantages of a homogenous society: - Social harmony: A homogenous society often experiences social harmony due to the absence of significant ethnic differences, which can reduce tension and conflicts. - Cultural preservation: Homogenous societies often have a strong sense of cultural identity and are able to preserve their traditions, language, and cultural practices more effectively. - Cohesive communities: The shared values and cultural similarities in a homogenous society can lead to strong community bonds and a sense of belonging among the members. Disadvantages of a homogenous society: - Lack of diversity: Homogenous societies may lack diversity in terms of ethnicity, culture, and perspectives, which can limit exposure to different ideas and experiences. - Exclusion and discrimination: In some homogenous societies, there may be a tendency to exclude or discriminate against individuals or groups who do not fit the dominant ethnic or cultural norms. - Stagnation: Without exposure to different cultures and perspectives, a homogenous society may experience stagnation in terms of innovation, creativity, and social progress. In conclusion, a homogenous society is characterized by the absence of significant ethnic differences and the presence of shared characteristics, values, and culture among its members. While it can promote social harmony and cultural preservation, it may also lack diversity and potentially lead to exclusion and stagnation.
Meaning of a homogeneous society: A homogeneous society refers to a society where there are no significant ethnic differences. This means that the population of the society is relatively uniform in terms of ethnicity, with a majority of individuals sharing the same racial or ethnic background. Explanation: - A homogeneous society implies a lack of significant ethnic differences, indicating a certain level of homogeneity among the population. - This means that the majority of the population belongs to the same racial or ethnic group, resulting in a relatively uniform society. - It does not imply the absence of any ethnic differences, as no society can be completely devoid of diversity. However, the differences are not significant enough to create distinct ethnic groups within the society. - Homogeneity in this context pertains to racial or ethnic background, not other factors such as religion or caste. - The term "homogeneous" does not indicate that everyone in the society is exactly the same, but rather that there is a shared racial or ethnic identity that is predominant within the society. Conclusion: The most appropriate meaning of a homogeneous society is a society with no significant ethnic differences. This implies a relatively uniform population in terms of racial or ethnic background, where the majority of individuals share the same racial or ethnic identity.
India: A Vast Country with Many Languages, Communities, and Religions India is a diverse and vast country known for its rich cultural heritage and diversity. It is home to numerous languages, communities, and religions, making it a unique and vibrant nation. Let's explore each aspect in detail: Languages: - India is a multilingual country with over 1,600 languages spoken across its various regions. - Hindi and English are the official languages at the national level, but several other languages are recognized as regional official languages in different states. - Some of the major languages spoken in India include Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, and Punjabi. Communities: - India is a melting pot of various communities, each with its distinct customs, traditions, and practices. - There are thousands of communities in India, representing different castes, tribes, and ethnic groups. - Some of the prominent communities in India include Brahmins, Rajputs, Jats, Marathas, Bhumihars, Bunts, Nairs, and Yadavs. Religions: - India is known for its religious diversity, with several major religions coexisting peacefully. - Hinduism is the majority religion, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, and various other indigenous religions. - Each religion has its own set of beliefs, rituals, and practices, contributing to the cultural fabric of the country. All of these: - India's diversity is best represented by the fact that it encompasses all of these aspects - languages, communities, and religions. - The country's cultural richness lies in the harmonious coexistence and intermingling of various linguistic, ethnic, and religious groups. - This diversity is evident in the festivals, cuisine, art, music, and dance forms that vary from region to region. In conclusion, India is a vast country that boasts a plethora of languages, communities, and religions. Its diversity makes it a fascinating place to explore, as it offers a unique blend of cultural experiences and traditions.
A: Africans who were brought into America as slaves - African-Americans are descendants of Africans who were forcibly brought to America during the transatlantic slave trade. - These individuals were enslaved and considered property rather than citizens. B: Black Americans of America - African-Americans are often referred to as Black Americans, reflecting their racial identity in the United States. - This term includes individuals who have African ancestry and are American citizens. C: Martin Luther and his group - Martin Luther King Jr. was a prominent figure in the civil rights movement, advocating for equal rights for African-Americans. - However, African-American is not specifically used to refer to Martin Luther King Jr. and his group. D: John Carlos and Smith - John Carlos and Tommie Smith were African-American athletes who made a notable protest during the 1968 Olympics. - While they are important figures in African-American history, African-American is not specifically used to refer to them. In conclusion, the term "African-American" is primarily used to refer to Africans who were brought into America as slaves and their descendants. It encompasses individuals with African ancestry who are American citizens and reflects their unique history and cultural identity in the United States.
Origin of Democracy for Ordinary People: 1688 The origin of democracy for ordinary people dates back to 1688. Here is a detailed explanation: 1. The Glorious Revolution: In 1688, the Glorious Revolution took place in England. It was a significant event that led to the establishment of democratic principles and the limitation of royal power. 2. Overthrow of James II: The Glorious Revolution saw the overthrow of King James II and the ascension of William III and Mary II to the English throne. This event marked a shift in power from the monarchy to the people. 3. Bill of Rights: Following the Glorious Revolution, the English Bill of Rights was enacted in 1689. This document outlined the rights and liberties of the people, including freedom of speech, parliamentary elections, and protection against cruel and unusual punishment. 4. Expansion of Suffrage: The Glorious Revolution and the subsequent reforms led to the expansion of suffrage in England. While the right to vote was still limited to a portion of the population, it marked a significant step towards democracy for ordinary people. 5. Influence on other Nations: The ideas and principles of the Glorious Revolution had a profound impact on other nations. It served as an inspiration for the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and other movements that aimed to establish democratic systems. In conclusion, the origin of democracy for ordinary people dates back to 1688 with the Glorious Revolution in England. This event led to the establishment of democratic principles, such as the limitation of royal power and the expansion of suffrage, and influenced the development of democracy in other nations.
- Democracy is a system that promotes peaceful resolution of conflicts and discourages violence and disintegration. - It provides a platform for citizens to express their opinions and engage in healthy debates and discussions.
B: Religious inequalities
- Democracy aims to ensure equality and protect the rights of individuals, regardless of their religious beliefs. - It promotes religious freedom and prohibits any form of discrimination based on religion.
C: Competition among various political parties
- Democracy encourages the formation of multiple political parties, leading to healthy competition among them. - This competition allows citizens to have different choices and options while electing their representatives. - It promotes accountability and transparency as parties strive to gain support from the public.
D: Cultural diversity
- Democracy recognizes and respects the cultural diversity within a society. - It allows people from different cultural backgrounds to participate in the political process and have their voices heard. - Cultural diversity enriches democracy by bringing in diverse perspectives and ideas. In conclusion, democracy involves conflict resolution, religious equality, political competition, and the recognition of cultural diversity. It is a system that promotes inclusivity, participation, and the protection of individual rights.
The correct answer is B: choosing government. By the end of the 17th century, people gained the liberty to choose their government. Here's a detailed explanation: Liberties by the end of the 17th century: - Freedom of speech: People gained the liberty to express their thoughts and opinions freely. This meant that they could openly discuss and criticize the government, which was a significant step towards democracy and individual rights. - Choosing government: Another crucial liberty that emerged by the end of the 17th century was the ability to choose the government. This meant that people had the right to participate in elections and select their representatives. This development marked a shift from absolute monarchy towards more democratic forms of governance. - Both (a) and (b): While freedom of speech and the ability to choose government were significant liberties gained by the end of the 17th century, it is important to note that these liberties were not available to everyone. They were often limited to certain segments of society, such as the aristocracy or the bourgeoisie. - None of the above: This option is incorrect as people did gain certain liberties by the end of the 17th century. In conclusion, by the end of the 17th century, people achieved the liberty of choosing their government, which was a significant advancement towards democracy and individual rights.
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