20 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1
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Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 1
Introduction: People complaining about democracy can indicate several things. Let's analyze the possible reasons behind such complaints. Reasons behind complaints about democracy: - Awareness: People complaining about democracy show that they are aware of the system and its functioning. They have a voice and are willing to express their opinions and concerns. - Perceived Uselessness: Some individuals may complain about democracy because they believe it is useless or ineffective in addressing their needs and concerns. However, this is not a valid conclusion as democracy provides a platform for diverse opinions and ensures participation from citizens. - Inefficient Leadership: Complaints about democracy can also reflect dissatisfaction with the leadership in power. People may feel that the elected leaders are inefficient in governing or addressing important issues. However, this does not undermine the democratic system itself but rather highlights the need for better leadership and accountability. Conclusion: People complaining about democracy can have various reasons behind their grievances. It is important to note that democracy allows individuals to express their concerns and opinions. Addressing these concerns and improving leadership effectiveness can help strengthen the democratic system.
In the context of assessing democracies, which is the odd one out?
Democracies need to ensure:
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 2
In the context of assessing democracies, the odd one out among the given options is:
Answer: C - Majority Rule
Free and Fair Elections: Democracies should ensure that elections are conducted in a free and fair manner, allowing citizens to choose their representatives without any coercion or manipulation.
Dignity of Individual: Democracies should protect and uphold the dignity of every individual, ensuring their basic rights and freedoms are respected and safeguarded.
Equal Treatment Before Law: Democracies should guarantee equal treatment of all individuals before the law, ensuring justice and fairness prevail without any discrimination based on factors like race, religion, or social status.
However, Majority Rule is the odd one out because:
While majority rule is an important principle in democracies, it is not the sole determinant of decision-making or the only measure of democratic legitimacy.
Democracies also value minority rights, protection of individual liberties, and respect for diverse opinions, which may not always align with the decisions made by the majority.
Democracies aim to strike a balance between majority rule and the protection of minority rights, ensuring that decisions are made through inclusive and participatory processes that consider the interests and opinions of all citizens.
Therefore, among the given options, Majority Rule (C) is the odd one out when assessing democracies.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 3
Democracies have successfully eliminated:
Conflicts among people: While democracies aim to promote harmony and resolve conflicts peacefully, it would be inaccurate to say that they have completely eliminated conflicts among people. Disagreements and conflicts are inherent in any society, and democratic systems provide mechanisms for addressing and managing such conflicts.
Economic inequalities: Democracies strive to reduce economic inequalities through various policies and programs, such as progressive taxation, social welfare programs, and promoting equal opportunities. However, complete elimination of economic inequalities is a complex and ongoing challenge that democracies continue to address.
Idea of political inequality: Democracies place a strong emphasis on the idea of political equality, where every citizen has an equal say in the decision-making process. While historical barriers to political equality, such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status, have been significantly reduced in many democracies, challenges and disparities still exist that need to be addressed.
Differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated: Democracies encourage open debates and discussions to address differences of opinion, including how marginalized sections of society should be treated. However, it would be incorrect to claim that democracies have completely eliminated differences of opinion on this matter. Different perspectives and approaches to addressing marginalized sections exist within democratic societies.
Answer: C. Idea of political inequality
In conclusion, while democracies strive to address and reduce conflicts, economic inequalities, and political inequalities, it would be inaccurate to claim that they have successfully eliminated all of these issues. Democracies are ongoing processes that continually aim to improve and create a more equitable and inclusive society.
In which South Asian country is dictatorship preferred over democracy ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 6
The correct option is Option B.
Democracy is the type of government in which the public can practice power of the government authority. In this government, power and control is provided to various members of the government for the functioning of the nation.
Dictatorship is the leadership in a nation in which the leader has the power to make rules and regulation. He rules the whole country.
According to the question, Pakistan prefers to have dictatorship over democratic government because they have a vast history of military dictators that ruled the country for many years. Thus, they are attached with the dictatorship government format.
A democratic government is a ____________ government.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 7
Answer: A democratic government is a legitimate government. Here is a detailed explanation:
Definition: - A democratic government is a type of government where the power is vested in the people, who exercise their power either directly or through elected representatives.
Characteristics of a democratic government: - Power of the government comes from the consent of the governed. - It upholds the principles of equality, freedom, and justice. - It promotes the rule of law and protects individual rights and liberties. - It allows for political participation and the right to vote. - It encourages open and transparent decision-making processes. - It provides a system of checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power.
Explanation: - A democratic government is considered legitimate because it is based on the will of the people and respects their rights and freedoms. - Legitimacy refers to the acceptance and recognition of a government's authority by its citizens, which is essential for maintaining social order and stability. - In a democratic government, the legitimacy comes from the people's participation in the political process, such as voting for their representatives and holding them accountable. - Democratic governments derive their power from the consent of the governed, making them legitimate in the eyes of the people. - Legitimacy is crucial for a government to effectively govern and make decisions that are accepted by the majority of the population.
Conclusion: - A democratic government is a legitimate government because it is based on the will of the people and respects their rights and freedoms. - Legitimacy is essential for maintaining social order and stability within a society.
On what ground is a dictatorship form of government is better than a democracy ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 8
Democracy generally leads to poor growth of country's economy. If you consider all the democracies and all the non-democracies between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly better growth rate. Consider the case of China and USA. USA is a very old democracy which has achieved such economic growth in 200 years whereas China running a non-democratic government has achieved similar economic growth pattern in 60 years. The inability of democracy to provide higher economic rates worries economists all over the world.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 9
The ideas of Democracy: There are several key ideas that democracy is based on, including: 1. Freedom: Democracy emphasizes individual freedom and the protection of basic human rights. Citizens have the freedom to express their opinions, participate in the political process, and make choices that affect their lives. 2. Negotiation: Democracy promotes negotiation and compromise as essential components of decision-making. Different viewpoints and interests are considered, and consensus is reached through dialogue and bargaining. 3. Deliberation: Democracy values the process of informed and thoughtful deliberation. It encourages citizens to engage in reasoned discussions, weigh different arguments, and make informed decisions based on the best available information. 4. Both negotiation and deliberation: Democracy combines the principles of negotiation and deliberation to ensure a fair and inclusive decision-making process. Negotiation allows diverse perspectives to be heard and compromises to be made, while deliberation ensures that decisions are well thought out and based on rational deliberation. Therefore, the correct answer is option D: both B and C. Democracy is based on the ideas of freedom, negotiation, and deliberation, which are all essential for a functioning democratic system.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 10
Government accountability to the citizens is the most basic outcome of democracy.
Government Accountability: Democracy ensures that the government is accountable to the citizens. This means that elected officials are responsible for their actions and decisions, and they are answerable to the people they represent. Accountability is essential for maintaining transparency and trust in the democratic system.
Citizen Participation: Democracy encourages citizen participation in the decision-making process. It allows individuals to express their opinions, vote for their preferred candidates, and engage in political activities. This participation ensures that the government represents the will of the people and acts in their best interests.
Protection of Rights: Democracy protects the rights and freedoms of individuals. It guarantees fundamental human rights, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and religion. Citizens have the power to challenge any violation of their rights and seek justice through democratic institutions and processes.
Peaceful Transfer of Power: In a democratic system, power is transferred peacefully through fair and regular elections. This prevents the concentration of power in the hands of a few and reduces the likelihood of violent conflicts or coups. The peaceful transfer of power ensures stability and continuity in governance.
Rule of Law: Democracy upholds the rule of law, where everyone is subject to the same laws and regulations. This ensures that no one, including government officials, is above the law. The rule of law provides a framework for fairness, justice, and equality in society.
Therefore, among the given options, government accountability to the citizens is the most basic outcome of democracy.
Which South Asian country has always had a democratic government since independence ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 13
To determine which South Asian country has always had a democratic government since independence, we need to analyze the political history of each country. Pakistan: - Pakistan gained independence from British rule in 1947. - Since its inception, Pakistan has experienced periods of military rule and democratic governments. Hence, it does not have a continuous history of democratic government since independence. Bangladesh: - Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan in 1971. - Although it started as a parliamentary democracy, Bangladesh has experienced periods of military rule as well. Hence, it does not have a continuous history of democratic government since independence. Bhutan: - Bhutan, a landlocked country in the eastern Himalayas, transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy in 2008. - It has a parliamentary democracy, but it does not have a long history of democratic government since independence. India: - India gained independence from British rule in 1947. - Since then, India has had a continuous history of democratic government. - It has successfully held regular elections and transitions of power through peaceful means. - The Indian government is based on a parliamentary system, with a President as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government. Conclusion: The South Asian country that has always had a democratic government since independence is India.
What are the features common to all countries following democracies?
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 15
Features Common to All Countries Following Democracies:
Promotes equality to citizens: Democracy ensures that all citizens have equal rights and opportunities. It promotes the idea that every individual should be treated equally under the law.
Promotes dignity of an individual: Democracy recognizes the inherent worth and dignity of every individual. It upholds the principle that every person should be respected and have their voice heard in the decision-making process.
Therefore, the correct answer is option C: both a and b. In summary, democracy is characterized by its emphasis on equality and the dignity of individuals. These principles are fundamental to the functioning of democratic countries and are found in all countries that follow democratic systems of governance.
Mention the factor that contributes to the economic development of the country.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 16
Factors that contribute to the economic development of a country: 1. Population Size: - A large population can contribute to economic development by providing a large labor force and consumer base. - However, the quality of education and healthcare services must also be considered to ensure a skilled workforce and healthy population. 2. Global Situation: - The global economic situation can impact a country's economic development. - Factors such as global trade, foreign investments, and geopolitical stability play a significant role. - Favorable global conditions can result in increased exports, investments, and economic growth. 3. Economic Priorities Adopted by the Country: - The economic priorities and policies adopted by a country can greatly influence its economic development. - Governments may focus on sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, services, or technology to drive growth. - Policies related to taxation, foreign investment, trade regulations, infrastructure development, and innovation also impact economic development. 4. Infrastructure Development: - The presence of well-developed infrastructure, including transportation, communication, energy, and water supply systems, is crucial for economic development. - Efficient infrastructure facilitates trade, reduces transaction costs, and attracts investments. 5. Educational and Healthcare Systems: - A well-educated and healthy workforce is essential for economic development. - Investments in education and healthcare systems improve human capital, productivity, and innovation. 6. Natural Resources: - The presence of abundant natural resources can contribute to economic development. - However, proper management and sustainable use of resources are necessary to ensure long-term growth. 7. Political Stability and Good Governance: - Political stability and good governance provide a conducive environment for economic development. - They attract investments, promote business confidence, and ensure the efficient functioning of institutions. 8. Technological Advancement: - Embracing technological advancements and promoting innovation drives economic development. - Investments in research and development, digital infrastructure, and technology adoption can spur growth in various sectors. In conclusion, economic development is influenced by various factors such as population size, global situation, economic priorities, infrastructure development, education and healthcare systems, natural resources, political stability, good governance, and technological advancement. These factors are interrelated and require careful consideration and planning by governments to ensure sustained and inclusive economic growth.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 17
The answer to the question is C: all people. Democracy is a form of government where the power is vested in the people and decisions are made through majority rule. It is designed to be attentive to the needs and interests of all individuals within a society, regardless of their gender, social status, or background. Here are some reasons why a democracy is attentive to the needs of all people: 1. Equality: In a democratic system, all individuals are considered equal under the law. This means that everyone has the right to participate in the political process and have their voices heard. 2. Universal suffrage: Democracies typically grant universal suffrage, which means that all adult citizens have the right to vote. This ensures that the government is accountable to the entire population, not just a select few. 3. Protection of minority rights: Democracies often have systems in place to protect the rights and interests of minority groups. This can include laws against discrimination and mechanisms for representation, such as affirmative action or proportional representation. 4. Freedom of expression: Democracy promotes freedom of speech and expression, allowing individuals to voice their opinions and concerns without fear of reprisal. This enables a diverse range of perspectives to be considered in decision-making processes. 5. Accountability: In a democracy, elected representatives are accountable to the people who voted for them. This accountability ensures that the government remains responsive to the needs and demands of the population. In conclusion, a democracy is attentive to the needs of all people, as it is based on principles of equality, universal suffrage, protection of minority rights, freedom of expression, and accountability.
Why is democracy better than any other form of government:
I. It improves the quality of decision making.
II. It allows the citizens to do whatever they like.
Detailed Solution for Test: Outcomes of Democracy - 1 - Question 19
Why is democracy better than any other form of government: I. It improves the quality of decision making. - In a democracy, decisions are made through a process of discussion, debate, and voting. This allows for multiple perspectives to be considered and encourages the involvement of different stakeholders. - The collective wisdom of the citizens is taken into account, leading to more informed and balanced decisions. - Democratic governments are accountable to the people and can be held responsible for their actions, ensuring that decisions are made in the best interest of the majority. II. It allows the citizens to do whatever they like. - This statement is false. Democracy does not allow citizens to do whatever they like without any limitations or consequences. - Democracy is based on the principle of rule of law, which means that everyone, including the citizens, must abide by a set of laws and regulations. - While democracy promotes individual freedoms and rights, they are balanced with the need to protect the rights and interests of others. - In a democracy, the actions of citizens are subject to legal and ethical boundaries, and there are mechanisms in place to maintain social order and prevent abuses of power. Conclusion: Based on the above explanations, it can be concluded that Option A is correct: I is true but II is false. Democracy is better than any other form of government because it improves the quality of decision making while also ensuring that citizens' actions are within legal and ethical boundaries.
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