Fact, Inference And Judgement MCQ


19 Questions MCQ Test Logical Reasoning for CLAT | Fact, Inference And Judgement MCQ


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QUESTION: 1

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. In a meeting set up at short notice, Prime Minister Narendra Modi called on his friend and enquired about his health.
B. Mr. Ramaswamy has not been keeping well for a while and has been in and out of hospital over the past few months.
C. BJP sources said the meeting was fixed only on Friday, and did not figure in the schedule sent to the State unit on Thursday.
D. It was a touching gesture; our Prime Minister truly has a heart of gold.

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. Until last year, China's Afghanistan policy was characterized by four Nos:  No boots on the ground, no interference in internal affairs; no use of the Northern Distribution Network (NDN) for the withdrawal of foreign forces, and no criticism of the United States.
B. China has not put out combat troops, even in U.N. peacekeeping, and has publicly shown only commercial interest in Afghanistan.
C. But that could change as it is now politically active in South Asia.
D. At the recent summit, Presidents Ghani and Xi Jinping of China agreed to establish a forum of Afghanistan, Pakistan and China.

Solution:
QUESTION: 3

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. Businesses small and large often have unusual origin stories - usually in the basement of someone's house or while in metro, someone has a flashbulb moment.
B. But Mr. Tan and Mr. Panzetta's story  starts in a university film society formed only because they wanted to make short films.
C. Their drive and ambition saw them build their business into a success, especially throughout the GFC years.
D. Owing their unusual beginnings, they're in a position to offer some sage advice to youngsters who are thinking of setting up their own businesses.

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. India is plagued by an acute shortage of power.
B.  Erratic power supply and frequent power outages have serious financial implications Tor industry.
C. Reports from industry associations suggest that 26 per cent of firms have disruptions in power supply for more than 21 hours a week, while another 68 per cent face up to 10 hours of power cuts every week.
D. Large industries have to rely on expensive and unsustainable diesel-based back up due to the power shortage problems.

Solution:
QUESTION: 5

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. Those who've listened to President Obama's speeches over the past couple months have heard him boast that 2015 has seen impressive improvements in  the labor market.
B. But there's no obvious explanation for why 2015 has been, by a good margin, the best year of a weak jobs recovery.
C. The president has credited his policies (without any justification).
D. But what if 2014's jobs boom is mostly thanks to the expiration of a program that the Obama administration and Democrats fervently pushed to renew?

Solution:

The correct answer is C as if something is true it is a fact
If it’s not true or it seems more of a opinion than it’s a judgement. According to the given definitions the correct option is C where first two and last statements are judgements and second one is fact.

QUESTION: 6

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. All indications are that the position is set to change.
B. Setting the interest rate will soon cease to be the prerogative of the RBI Governor.
C. It's hard to resist the feeling that the RBI's actions over the past year will have contributed to the changes that are imminent.
D. In the present scheme of things, the RBI Governor consults his four Deputy Governors.

Solution:

The correct answer is C as according to the given definitions of facts, judgement and inference the correct option seems to be correct .

QUESTION: 7

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. The ultimatum given by North Korea to the South to either stop its propaganda broadcasts across the demilitarised zone (DMZ) or face war has raised tension.
B. The Koreas are still technically at war, as the 1950-53 Korean War ended with an armistice agreement and not a proper ceasefire.
C. Since then there have been several incidents of border violence, and leaders on both sides have occasionally exchanged high-decibel rhetoric.
D. The latest flare-up is particularly menacing because of the growing unpredictability of the North Korean regime under Kim Jong-un.

Solution:

The correct answer is A as 2nd statement is is the conclusion therefore it is an inference while the  last one is opinion .therefore correct answer is A.

QUESTION: 8

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. This dentist turned designer strikes a balance between bling and the arty.
B. His ikkat silk weaves, with bold geometric patterns, are a hit with dancers Anita Ratnam and Ananda Shankar Jayant while his wedding trousseaus are sought after by the NRIs.
C. His formal training in Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi helps him when he designs for Ananda Shankar's dance productions.
D. The use of temple Jewellery in saris and blouses has become his signature style.

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. If you have committed to perform for live audience, you cannot afford to go back on your words.
B. Rehearsing everyday with Pt. Hari Prasad will be a good idea.
C. Pt. Hari Prasad is well known for encouraging budding talent.
D. Many famous musicians have started their careers under his guidance.

Solution:

the correct answer is D as the first statement is the conclusion and the last two statements are normal facts .

QUESTION: 10

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. The only solution is to introduce the product in the international market.
B. The demand for our product has started to decline.
C. Further reducing prices is not an option as it would lead to losses.
D. The correct solution is to dump the product in a new market.

Solution:

The correct answer is C as third statement is an opinion while all other statements are facts.
 

QUESTION: 11

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. Our nation's court system assumes that everybody has a lawyer to help them, when in reality many people can't afford one.
B. While it is true that you don't need a lawyer and that you can try to do everything yourself, if you handle things completely on your own you run the risk of making serious mistakes.
C. Now there is an alternative approach that is being promoted by Judges and leading legal minds all across the country.
D. Referred to as "Limited Scope Representation", this model allows you to engage an attorney to perform services that you choose; which helps you to use legal services more efficiently and keeps costs manageable.

Solution:

The correct answer is B as last sentence is clearly show that it is a conclusion ans second is an opinion .

QUESTION: 12

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. After careful consideration and   deliberation of the body of evidence, NHMRC concludes that there is currently no consistent evidence that wind farms cause adverse health effects in humans.
B. The report is based on a rigorous assessment of the available scientific evidence on wind farms and human health, much of which the report's authors said was of "very poor quality."
C. Of the 4000 pieces of research examined, the vast majority was opinion and editorial material, with only 13 pieces of original research.
D. "It is unfortunate that most of the studies were of poor quality," Armstrong told journalists in a briefing on the report.

Solution:

The correct option is D.
As we can see all the statements here are taken from a source means they are established facts.

QUESTION: 13

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. The prices of air conditioners are falling.
B. Since the companies, at this time of the year, are willing to sell their products regardless of the profit, this is obvious.
C. The trend is certain to continue in the near future.
D. But the turnover is still rising since the consumers are taking advantage of the reduced prices.

Solution:

The correct answer is A as both 3and 2nd statement are anticipation of common intention while 1 and last statements are directly the facts.

QUESTION: 14

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. India's culture is among the world's oldest; civilization in India began about 4,500 years ago.
B. Many sources describe it as "Sa Prathama Sanskrati Vishvavara" - the first and the supreme culture in the world, according to the All World Gayatri Pariwar (AWGP) organization.
C. Western societies did not always see the culture of India very favorably, according to Christina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London.
D. Early anthropologists once considered culture as an evolutionary process, and every aspect of human development was seen as driven by evolution.

Solution:

The correct option is A.
As we can see all the statements here are taken from a source means they are established facts.

QUESTION: 15

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

A. In an obviously intimate gesture, Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif exchanged gifts for their mothers.
B. While India and Pakistan saved each other's citizens in Yemen, they didn't come any closer as a result.
C. Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar went to Islamabad to talk, but didn't engage in any substantive way, and while Mr. Modi has dialled Mr. Sharif on at least three occasions, they have not held any formal talks.
D. The two leaders may be afforded another opportunity in July, as both are expected to be in Russia's Ufa city for the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit.

Solution:

The correct answer is C as first statement is a conclusion of something while last statement is something a logically conclusion.

QUESTION: 16

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

In an obviously intimate gesture, Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif exchanged gifts for their mothers.

A. Despite the beliefs of 17-21 million people, there is no evidence that accidents are more likely to happen on Friday the 13th.
B. On the contrary, some studies have shown there are actually fewer accidents on Friday the 13th.
C. It is highly probable that this reduction in accidents owes itself to the fear of Friday the 13th itself.
D. If people are more cautious on Friday the 13th, then there are likely to be fewer accidents.

Solution:

The correct answer is D as  last both statements are anticipation which are true to be a judgement and first two are directly the true facts.

QUESTION: 17

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

In an obviously intimate gesture, Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif exchanged gifts for their mothers.

Despite the beliefs of 17-21 million people, there is no evidence that accidents are more likely to happen on Friday the 13th.

A.  The Rajasthan High Court, in a  judgment on the August 10, 2015, declared the Jain practice of Santhara, which involves a voluntary fast-unto-death, an offence punishable under the Indian Penal Code (IPC).
B. This decision in Nikhil Soni v. Union of India is likely to have far-reaching consequences, not only amongst the Jain community in Rajasthan but also across the country.
C. It conflates  several important issues of constitutional law, and symbolizes the confusion over the fundamental guarantee of religious freedom in our constitutional jurisprudence.
D. The court's judgment is superficially reasoned and most significantly, ignores vital considerations that go to the root of a person's right to ethical independence.

Solution:

The correct answer is C as first and third statement are true facts while 3 and 4th one are the opioids about the fact therefore C option is correct .

QUESTION: 18

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

In an obviously intimate gesture, Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif exchanged gifts for their mothers.

Despite the beliefs of 17-21 million people, there is no evidence that accidents are more likely to happen on Friday the 13th.

A. Of late, share prices of textile companies are performing extremely well and attracting huge private investment, but cotton farmers continue to be in distress.
B. Even in staples such as pulses, rice and wheat, food companies do well but the  farmers are in trouble.
C. It is significant that all these foods are processed but not by the farmer.\
D. The money is clearly in the market, and not merely in production.

Solution:

The correct option is A as first two statements are  true facts while next two statements are opinions or anticipation.

QUESTION: 19

Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.

Fact (F): If it is known to be a matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.

In an obviously intimate gesture, Mr. Modi and Mr. Sharif exchanged gifts for their mothers.

Despite the beliefs of 17-21 million people, there is no evidence that accidents are more likely to happen on Friday the 13th.

A. Emotionally charged, challenging and often intimidating, backward bends take practice.
B. However, they also come with a host of benefits, from strengthening your spine to building confidence.
C. Forward bends, on the other hand,  stretch your muscles and calm your mind.
D. Irrespective of how advanced or amateur your poses are, all the teachers agree that even the simplest pose offers both physical and emotional benefits.

Solution:

The correct answer is B as we definitely know that option B, C, D are facts because of certain statements.As we know, nothing pertaining to numbers, statistics or such "fact" indicating statements are present, thus, only option left ii option B and that is the answer to the question.

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