Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-1


15 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-1


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QUESTION: 1

With respect to Movement of April 2006 in Nepal, consider the following statements:

1. This struggle came to be known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy.

2. It was against King Birendra of Nepal who was not prepared to accept democratic rule.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy.Nepal, was one of the ‘third wave’ countries that had won democracy in 1990. King Birendra, who has accepted this transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001.

  • King Gyanendra, the new king of Nepal, was not prepared to accept democratic rule. He took advantage of the weakness and unpopularity of the democratically elected government.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements:

1. Bolivia is a country in East Europe.

2. Bolivia’s water war is its people’s successful struggle against privatisation of water.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: People’s successful struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia reminds that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy. Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America. The World Bank pressured the government to give up its control of municipal water supply.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:

1. Democracy evolves through popular struggles.

2. Democratic conflict can be resolved through mass mobilisation.

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

Solution:
  • Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception.

  • Defining moments of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These moments come when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.

  • Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. The resolution has to come from outside, from the people.

QUESTION: 4

In which of the following states of India the Kittiko-Hachchiko movement took place during the 1980s?

Solution:
  • In 1984, the Karnataka government set up a company called Karnataka Pulpwood Limited.

  • About 30,000 hectares of land was given virtually free to this company for 40 years. Much of this land was used by local farmers as grazing land for their cattle.

  • However the company began to plant eucalyptus trees on this land, which could be used for making paper pulp.

  • In 1987, a movement called Kittiko-Hachchiko (meaning, pluck and plant) started a non-violent protest, where people plucked the eucalyptus plants and planted saplings of trees that were useful to the people.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements:

1. Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.

2. Pressure groups aim to directly control or share political power.

Solution:
  • In a democracy several different kinds of organisations work behind any big struggle. These organisations play their role in two ways.

  • One obvious way of influencing the decisions in a democracy is direct participation in competitive politics.

  • This is done by creating parties, contesting elections and forming governments. There are many indirect ways in which people can get governments to listen to their demands or their point of view.

  • They could do so by forming an organisation and undertaking activities to promote their interest or their viewpoint. These are called interest groups or pressure groups. Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.

  • But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

QUESTION: 6

Which of the following are the examples of sectional interest groups?

1. Trade unions

2. Business associations

3. Teachers association

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: All are examples of Sectional interest groups.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:

1. Both Interest groups and movement groups attempt to influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition.

2. Both Interest groups and movement groups have strong organisations.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Like an interest group, a movement attempts to influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition. But unlike the interest groups, movements have a loose organisation.

  • Their decision making is more informal and flexible. They depend much more on spontaneous mass participation than an interest group. The groups involved with movements also include a very wide variety.

  • Most of the movements are issue specific movements that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame.

  • Others are more general or generic movements that seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term. The Nepalese movement for democracy arose with the specific objective of reversing the king’s orders that led to suspension of democracy.

QUESTION: 8

Green belt movement happened in which of the following country:

Solution:
  • The Green Belt Movement (GBM) is an indigenous, grassroots, non-governmental organization based in Nairobi, Kenya that takes a holistic approach to a development by focusing on environmental conservation, community development and capacity building The Green Belt Movement has planted 30 million trees across Kenya.

  • It was founded by Wangari Maathai, a Kenyan environmental political activist and Nobel laureate.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements:

1. Maoists are those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese revolution.

2. Maoists seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Maoists are those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese revolution. They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to establish the rule of the peasants and workers.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements:

1. A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

2. Political parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

  • They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good.

  • Since there can be different views on what is good for all, parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others.They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections. Thus, parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements:

1. Partisan is a person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction.

2. Parties are about a part of the society and thus involve Partisanship.

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

Solution:
  • Partisan is a person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction. Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view on an issue. Parties are about a part of the society and thus involve PARTISANSHIP.

  • Thus a party is known by which part it stands for, which policies it supports and whose interests it upholds. A political party has three components: 1. The leaders 2. The active members 3. Followers.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following are the functions of Political Party?

1. Shape public opinion

2. Play the role of opposition

3. Parties put forward different policies and programmes

4. Provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

Functions of Political Parties Basically, political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. Parties do so by performing a series of functions:

1. Parties contest elections : In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. In some countries, such as the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates. In other countries like India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.

2. Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.

3. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. But since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions.

4. Parties form and run governments: Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

5. Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilise opposition to the government.

6. Parties shape public opinion: They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Many of the pressure groups are the extensions of political parties among different sections of society.

7. Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments. For an ordinary citizen it is easier to approach a local party leader than a government officer.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:

1. In a democracy any group of citizens is free to form a political party.

2. In a one-party system only one party is allowed to control and run the government.

3. Any democratic system must allow at least two parties to compete in elections.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

1. In a democracy any group of citizens is free to form a political party. In this formal sense there are a large number of political parties in each country.

2. In some countries only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems.

3. Any democratic system must allow at least two parties to compete in elections and provide a fair chance for the competing parties to come to power. In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties.

4. Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures. But only the two main parties have a serious chance of winning a majority of seats to form government. Such a party system is called a two-party system. The United States of America and the United Kingdom are examples of two-party systems.

5. If several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, we call it a multi-party system.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements:

1. Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.

2. The Election Commission treats all parties equally and does not offer any special facilities to large and established parties.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Democracies that follow a federal system all over the world tend to have two kinds of political parties. Parties that are present in only one of the federal units and parties that are present in several or all units of the federation.

  • This is the case in India as well. There are some countrywide parties, which are called ‘national parties’. These parties have their units in various states. But by and large all these units follow the same policies, programmes and strategy that is decided at the national level.

  • Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission. While the Commission treats all parties equally, it offers some special facilities to large and established parties.

  • These parties are given a unique symbol – only the official candidates of that party can use that election symbol. Parties that get this privilege and some other special facilities are ‘recognised’ by the Election Commission for this purpose. That is why these parties are called, ‘recognised political parties’.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following criteria are required for a political party to be registered as a National party?

1. Party should have won 2 percent of seats in Lok Sabha from at least four different states in the latest general election.

2. Party should have been recognised as a state party in at least four states.

3. In a Lok Sabha or Assembly election party has polled 6 percent of the total valid votes in at least four states, in addition to winning four Lok Sabha seats.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • The Election Commission has laid down detailed criteria of the proportion of votes and seats that a party must get in order to be a recognised party.

  • A party that secures at least 6 percent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party.

  • A political party becomes eligible to be recognised as a national party if it has won 2 percent of seats in Lok Sabha from at least three different states in the latest general election; or in a Lok Sabha or Assembly election it has polled 6 percent of the total valid votes in at least four states, in addition to winning four Lok Sabha seats; or it has been recognised as a state party in at least four states.According to this classification,Now, India has seven recognised national parties – Congress, BJP, BSP, CPI, CPI-M, NCP and All India Trinamool Congress.

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