Test: Geomorphology - 1


20 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Geomorphology - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Volcanoes are not likely to be found in the regions of the earthquake.

Reason (R): Earthquakes are induced by seismic activity; volcanoes do not require seismic activity.

In the context of the above, which of these is correct?

Solution:
  • The world's distribution of earthquakes coincides very closely with that of volcanoes. Regions of great seismicity such as a circum-Pacific ring of fire arc also regions of major volcanic eruptions. Many processes in and around volcanoes can generate earthquakes. Most of the time, these processes are faulting and fracturing that does not lead to an eruption.

  • Also, earthquake activity beneath a volcano almost always increases before an eruption because magma and volcanic gas must first force their way up through shallow underground fractures and passageways. When magma and volcanic gases or fluids move, they will either cause rocks to break or cracks to vibrate. So, both statements are incorrect.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements:

1. These volcanoes are characterised by eruptions of cooler and more viscous lavas than basalt.

2. These volcanoes often result in explosive eruptions.

3. Along with lava, large quantities of pyroclastic material and ashes find their way to the ground.

The above characters best describe which of the following type of volcanoes?

Solution:
  • Composite volcanoes are characterised by eruptions of cooler and more viscous lavas than basalt. These volcanoes often result in explosive eruptions.

  • Along with lava, large quantities of pyroclastic material and ashes find their way to the ground. This material accumulates in the vicinity of the vent openings leading to the formation of layers, and this makes the mounts appear as composite volcanoes.

QUESTION: 3

Regarding properties of lava, consider the following statements:

1. Basic lavas are the hottest lavas and are highly fluid.

2. When Basic lava flows from a volcano, it is very explosive.

3. Acid lavas arc highly viscous and cause less explosive volcanoes.

4. Acid lava is also called as felsic lava.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution: Highly fluid ones are less viscous, hence are less explosive while the acidic ones arc explosive due to high viscosity.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following intrusive forms of lava:

1. Laccoliths - A large body of magmatic material that cools in the deeper depth of the crust develops in the form of large domes.

2. Batholiths - These are large dome-shaped intrusive bodies with a level base and connected by a pipe-like conduit from below.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Batholiths: Large dome-like structures are developed when a large body of magmatic material is cooled in the deeper depth of the crust. They cover large areas. Sometimes, these granitic bodies assume depth that may be several kilometres. A cooled portion of the magma chambers is known as batholiths.

  •  

    Laccoliths: Large dome-shaped intrusive bodies with a level base that are connected by a pipe-like channel arising from below arc known as laccoliths. It is similar to the surface volcanic domes of the composite volcano that are located at deeper depths. The domal hills of granite rocks are spotted in the plateau of Karnataka. Though now exfoliated, most of these are examples of laccoliths or batholiths.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 5

‘Hot Spots’ within the Earth help produce Geothermal Energy. What are these ‘Hot Spots’?

Solution:
  • When the water of the spring is at temperatures substantially higher than the air temperature of the surrounding area, it is called as hot spring or thermal spring.

  • In most hot springs, groundwater heated by shallow intrusions of magma (molten rock) in volcanic areas is discharged. But some thermal springs are not connected to volcanic activity. In such cases, convective circulation plays a role, by heating the water.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements about Mount Aso:

1. It was an active volcano a few decades back, but is an inactive volcano now.

2. It is located in Japan.

3. The explosions in Mount Aso are of very low intensity (if any).

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Mount Aso, a volcano in southern Japan, has erupted. It is the first such eruption in 22 years, causing flight cancellations and prompting warnings to stay away from its crater.

  • This eruption has spewed out lava debris and smoke, shooting plumes of ash a kilometre into the sky.

QUESTION: 7

Regarding Galapagos Islands, consider the following statements:

1. These islands are volcanic in origin and were never attached to any continent.

2. The stark rocky islands, many with few plants in these islands, made it necessary for many species to adapt to survive here and by doing so evolving into new endemic.

3. Galapagos were instrumental in developing Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Galapagos Islands are formed due to hotspot activity. The Galapagos Islands are located off the west coast of South America straddling the equator. It belongs to Ecuador.

  • The Galapagos are located at the confluence of several currents including the cold Humboldt Current travelling north from South America and the Panama Current travelling south from Central America making the islands cooler than you would think and providing the perfect environment for the unique mix of wildlife that inhabits the islands.

  • Galapagos were instrumental in developing Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

QUESTION: 8

Regarding the distribution of volcanoes around the world, consider the following statements:

1. The Atlantic coasts have many active volcanoes.

2. The Pacific Ocean has the highest number of active volcanoes in its coasts thanks to folded and faulted Landforms.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Atlantic coasts have very few volcanoes and that too dormant ones.

  • The Pacific Ocean has many volcanoes due to its activeness in volcanic eruptions called the Ring of Fire.

QUESTION: 9

The ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’ is a chain of volcanoes and includes locations from

1. New Zealand

2. Alaska

3. Pacific islands of Solomon

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Ring of Fire stretches from the southern tip of South America, up along the coast of North America, across the Bering Strait, down through Japan, and into New Zealand. Sri Lanka lies outside the ring.

  •  

    The southern portion is more complex, with several smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga etc.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following geological locations:

1. Coastal mountain ranges

2. Off-shore islands

3. Midst of Deep Ocean beds

Which of the above are likely for the occurrence of volcanoes?

Solution: Mid-Atlantic ridges, hot spots and plate boundaries are major sources for volcanoes.

QUESTION: 11

Normally, Earthquakes cause irreparable damage to life and property. What are the immediate hazardous effects of Earthquake?

1. Ground Shaking

2. Soil Liquefaction

3. Fires

4. Avalanches

5. Tsunami

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:

Earthquake is a natural hazard. The following are the immediate hazardous effects of earthquake

(i) Ground Shaking

(ii) Differential ground settlement

(iii) Land and mudslides

(iv) Soil liquefaction

(v) Ground lurching

(vi) Tsunami etc.

Primary effects of an eartquake can include the ground shaking, buildings collapsing, and the ground splitting. Secondary effects may include subsidance, tsunamis, fires, contamination of water supplies, gas leaks, and power outages.

Earthquakes can also trigger strong avalanches. By digging a snow pit or profile, scientists can look at the composition of different snow layers that formed during a season, sort of like looking at the layers of a cake.

 

 

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Shallow-focus earthquakes occur along transform boundaries.

Reason (R): Transform faults are found where plates slide past one another.

In the context of the above, which of these is correct?

Solution:
  • Most earthquakes occur at the boundaries where the plates meet. The locations of earthquakes and the kinds of ruptures they produce help scientists define the plate boundaries.

  • There are three types of plate boundaries: spreading zones, transform faults and subduction zones. Transform Plate Boundaries are locations where two plates slide past one another. The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundary is known as a transform fault. Most transform faults are found in the ocean basin and connect offsets in the mid-ocean ridges.

QUESTION: 13

Most volcanoes and earthquakes in the world arc located at

Solution:
  • Plate margins witness several plate collisions, sliding, transformation etc that result in volcanism or earthquakes.

  • Most of them are found in the Ring of Fire Some earthquakes also occur within the plates but not as frequently as on the plate margins.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements about earthquakes:

1. The point where the energy is released is called the epicentre.

2. The point on the surface, nearest to the epicentre, is called hypocentre.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Solution:
  • The point where the energy is released is called the focus.

  • The point on the surface, nearest to the focus, is called the epicentre.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 15

Earthquakes are most prone to occur in areas where

1. There are active volcanoes.

2. There are large reservoirs.

3. There are tectonic fault planes.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Sources of earthquakes
  • Tectonic earthquakes - sliding of plates along a fault plane.

  • Volcanic earthquakes - Collapse of roofs of underground mines.

Explosions of chemicals like nuclear weapons, reservoir-induced earthquakes in areas where large reservoirs (e.g. Latur reservoir caused minor earthquake) are located.

QUESTION: 16

Regarding seismic waves, consider the following statements:

(a) P wave or primary wave is the fastest kind of seismic wave and, consequently, the first to ‘arrive’ at a seismic station.

(b) S wave or secondary wave can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave. This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to ‘arrive’ at a seismic station. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the Earth.

  • The second type of body wave is the S wave or secondary wave, which is the second wave you feel in an earthquake. An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements concerning earthquake waves:

1. Body waves are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and move in all directions travelling through the body of the Earth.

2. The body waves interact with the surface rocks and generate a new set of waves called surface waves.

3. The denser the material, the lower is the velocity of these waves.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The two types of earthquakes are body waves and surface waves. Waves that are generated from the release of energy at the focus travel through the body by moving in all directions. Hence, it is named body waves.

  • Interaction between body waves and the rock’s surface generates a new set of waves. This is called surface waves. These waves move along the surface. Because these waves travel through materials that have different densities, the velocity changes.

  • The density of the material is directly proportional to the velocity, that is, if the material is denser, the velocity is higher. There is a change in direction of the waves when they get reflected or refracted by materials with different densities.

QUESTION: 18

Earthquakes occur at

1. Divergent plate boundaries.

2. Ocean-ocean convergent plate boundaries.

3. Ocean-continent plate boundaries.

4. Transform boundaries.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The boundaries where the plates meet experience most earthquakes. Locations of earthquakes and the kinds of ruptures they produce serve as a great source of information to scientists to define the plate boundaries. The three types of plate boundaries are spreading zones, transform faults and subduction zones. At spreading zones, molten rock rises, which pushes two plates apart and adds new material at their corners.

  • Divergent boundaries are those at which crustal plates move away from each other, such as at mid-oceanic ridges.

  • The formation of a new ocean crust that is pushed away from both sides of the ridge fault creates a tension setting that results in the formation of the graben. Earthquakes arc located along the normal faults that form the sides of the rift or beneath the floor of the rift.

  • Transform faults are found where plates slide past one another. Shallow-focus earthquakes occur along transform boundaries where two plates move past each other.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Shallow-focus earthquakes may occur along transform boundaries.

Reason (R): Significant energy may be released where crustal plates slide past one another.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: There are three types of plate boundaries: spreading zones, transform faults and subduction zones.
  • Earthquakes are located along the normal faults that form the sides of the rift or beneath the floor of the rift.

  • However, transform faults are found where plates slide past one another. Shallow-focus earthquakes occur along transform boundaries where two plates move past each other.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): The structure of Earth can be understood by observing the passage of earthquake waves through different layers of earth.

Reason (R): Some type of earthquake waves do not travel through liquid material in Earth’s layers.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • There are two types of body waves generated during an earthquake. They are called P- and S-waves.

  • An important fact about S-waves is that they can travel only through solid materials. This characteristic of the S-waves is quite important as it has helped scientists to understand the structure of the interior of the Earth.

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