Test: Geomorphology - 2


30 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Geomorphology - 2


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QUESTION: 1

Fold mountains are formed due to large- scale movements in the Earth’s surface when stresses are set up in the Earth’s crust. What is/are the possible reason(s) for this?

1. Increased load of overlying rocks

2. Flow movements in the mantle

3. Magnetic intrusions in the crust

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Fold mountains are formed due to compressive action of forces in the Earth's crust. These are driven by magmatic convection.

QUESTION: 2

Regarding fold mountains, consider the following statements:

1. Alpine mountain building phase is the recent phase to which the Himalayan mountains belong to.

2. The Ural Mountains were formed during Alpine orogeny (mountain building phase) too.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution: Ural Mountains belong to Hercynian orogeny. Rocky Mountains, Alpine, Himalayan mountains belong to Alpine category.

QUESTION: 3

Why a very large thickness of sedimentary rocks is found in the Fold Mountains?

Solution:
  • Formation of Fold Mountains: Rivers deposit huge quantities of sediments in depressions called geosynclines. Over millions of years, the sediments arc compressed into sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone. The plates move together forcing the sedimentary rocks upwards into a series of folds by the movement of tectonic plates. This causes the thickness of the rocks in fold mountains.

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following are examples of FOLD mountains?

1. Himalayas

2. Alps - Europe

3. Appalachians - North America

4. Ural-Russia

5. Aravalli - India

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • There are three types of mountains: Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.

  • The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks.

  • The Aravalli range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion.

  • The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following are the salient features of fold Mountains?

1. They are least likely to have conical peaks.

2. They are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.

3. They must be associated with volcanism either from the mountain core or its vicinity.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains.

  • Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.

  • The Aravalli range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world yet not associated with volcanic activity.

QUESTION: 6

Tectonic plateaus are formed due to Earth movements that cause uplifts. Consider the following statements:

1. Meseta of Central Iberia

2. Harz of Germany

3. Bolivian plateau found between two ranges of Andes

Which of the following are tectonic plateaus found on Earth?

Solution:

All are due to tectonic reasons. Some plateaus like these are found between fold mountains such as the Bolivian plateau. These are distinct from the volcanic plateaus that are formed due to the flow and consolidation of lava.

QUESTION: 7

In humid highlands, several dissected plateaus like the Scottish Highlands are found. Which of the forces are responsible for the formation of such dissected plateaus?

1. Stream action

2. Cuts done due to glaciation

3. Abrasion by wind

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A dissected plateau is an area that has been severely eroded and divided into several smaller pieces.

  • The natural agents, such as the Sun, the rain, the wind, the running water and the Glacier, wear away the soft rocks of the upland areas.

  • The resistant rock masses are left there standing on the ground above the surroundings.

  • The sometimes from the almost level surface, cut by rivers and streams. These upland areas together form a dissected plateau.

QUESTION: 8

The term ‘pole fleeing force’ relates to the

Solution:
  • As stated by Wegner, all the continents were once formed as a single continental mass, and this mass was surrounded by a mega ocean.

  • He argued that Pangaea, the supercontinent, began to split around 200 million years ago.

  • He also suggested that the pole-fleeing force and tidal force cause the movement that was responsible for the drifting of the continents. The pole-fleeing force is related to Earth’s rotation.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following evidence supports the theory of continental drift?

1. Jigsaw fit of shorelines of Africa and South America

2. Occurrence of gold deposits in Ghana coast but the absence of any source rocks there

3. All the east South American and Wes African coasts are good natural harbours

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution: East South American and West African coasts do not have good natural harbours.

QUESTION: 10

The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from the Brazil coast matches those from western Africa. Also, the earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age. What are we talking about?

Solution:
  • As argued by Wegner, all the continents were once formed as a single continental mass (supercontinent, called PANGAEA [meaning all Earth]), and this mass was surrounded by a mega ocean, known as PANTHALASSA (meaning all water).

  • He further argued that Pangaea, the supercontinent, began to split around 200 million years ago. Subsequently, their components broke up into various smaller continents that exist today.

QUESTION: 11

Regarding Plate tectonics, consider the following statements:

1. It is the theory that Earth’s outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle.

2. It is another name for the theory of continental drift.

3. It discards the conventional geological view that there is the conventional current flowing in the mantle.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Plate tectonics is the modem version of continental drift, a theory first proposed by scientist Alfred Wegener in 1912. Wegener didn’t have an explanation for how continents could move around the planet, but researchers do now. Plate tectonics is thus said to be the unifying theory of geology.

  • The driving force behind plate tectonics is convection in the mantle. Hot material near the Earth’s core rises, and colder mantle rock sinks.

  • The plates act like a hard and rigid shell compared to Earth’s mantle. This strong outer layer is called the lithosphere.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following about the tectonic ‘Indian Plate’ is not correct?

Solution:
  • The peninsular plate is an integral part of the Indian plate.

  • Plates are divided between major and minor plates based on their geographical coverage. The Indian plate is thus a major plate.

  • The subduction zone along the Himalayas forms the northern plate boundary in the form of continent convergence.

  • In the east, it extends through Rakim Yoma Mountains of Myanmar towards the island along the Java Trench. The Western margin follows Kirthar Mountain of Pakistan.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:

1. The northward movement of the Indian plate continues to date.

2. A part of the Western peninsular region of India is submerged beneath the sea.

3. The river valleys in the Peninsular region are deep with high gradients.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The northward movement of the Indian plate is continuing and it has significant consequences on the physical environment of the Indian subcontinent.

  • The Peninsula stands erect, with some exceptions on its western coast, which is under the sea and some other parts also changed because of tectonic activity. This does not affect the original basement.

  • The Peninsula is a part of the Indo-Australian Plate, with various vertical movements and block faulting. Some examples are the rift valleys of the Narmada, the Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block mountains.

  • The river valleys here are shallow with low gradients.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements about seafloor spreading concept:

1. Constant eruptions at the crest of oceanic ridges cause the rupture of the oceanic crust and the new lava wedges into it, pushing the oceanic crust on either side. The ocean floor thus spreads.

2. The ocean floor that gets pushed due to volcanic eruptions at the crest sinks at the oceanic trenches and gets consumed.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Harry Hess (1961) proposed a hypothesis known as the ‘seafloor spreading’ based on a thorough analysis of the magnetic properties of the rocks that are present on either side of the mid-oceanic ridge.

  • He argued that the rupture of the oceanic crust is due to the constant eruptions at the crest of oceanic ridges. Here, new lava wedges into the crust and pushes it on either side. Thus, the ocean floor spreads.

  • Hess thinks about the consumption of the oceanic crust because of the following two factors: the younger age of the oceanic crust and the spreading of one ocean at the cost of the shrinking of the other. He further said that the ocean floor that is pushed because of volcanic eruptions at the crest is immersed at the oceanic trenches and gets consumed.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following evidence supports the hypothesis of ‘seafloor spreading’?

1. Rocks on either side of mid-oceanic ridges have remarkable similarities.

2. Earthquake foci at mid-oceanic ridges are shallower than oceanic trenches.

3. Oceanic crust rocks arc younger than continental rock crust.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Mapping of the ocean floor a paleomagnetic rock studies of ocean regions disclosed the below facts:

(i) Volcanic eruptions are common in the mid-oceanic ridges, and enormous amounts of lava were brought to the surface by these eruptions.

(ii) There are striking similarities formation, chemical composition and magnetic properties between the rocks that are present equidistant on either side of the crest of mid-oceanic ridges.

(iii) The continental rocks are older than the ocean crust rocks. The oceanic crust rocks’ age is not more than 200 million years and some continental rocks are older than 3,200 million years.

(iv)The deep trenches have deep-seated earthquake occurrences while in the mid-oceanic ridge areas, the quake foci have shallow depths. It means lava is in close vicinity.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following oceanic regions is the primary site of generation of new crust, hosting mineral resources and supporting unique ecosystems?

Solution: The Mid-Ocean Ridge system forms the most extensive chain of mountains on Earth, with more than 90% of the mountain range lying in the deep ocean - with a total length of about 60,000 km. Mid-ocean ridges are geologically important because they occur along divergent plate boundaries, where the new ocean floor is created as the Earth’s tectonic plates spread apart. As the plates separate, some molten rock rises to the seafloor, producing enormous volcanic eruptions of basalt, and building the longest chain of volcanoes in the world. Because most of these eruptions occur deep under the water, they often go unnoticed.

QUESTION: 17

The action of the endogenic forces is not uniform and thus the tectonically controlled original crustal surface is uneven. This can be attributed to factors like

1. Variation in crustal thickness

2. Variation in geothermal gradients

3. Volcanism in the lithosphere

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The energy emanating from within the Earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes.

  • This energy mostly generated by radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction and primordial heat from the origin of the Earth.

  • This energy due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere.

  • Due to variations ii geothermal gradients and heat flow from within, crustal thickness and strength, the action of endogenic forces are not uniform and hence the tectonically controlled original crustal surface is uneven.

QUESTION: 18

Which of the following is responsible for bringing changes on the surface of the Earth?

1. Gravitational force

2. Tectonic forces

3. Electromagnetic radiation

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Gravity causes movement of ocean current, induces landslides, influences river movements etc. causing dynamic change on the landscape of Earth.

  • Tectonic forces can build mountains.

  • Sun’s radiation, that is, light, is electromagnetic. All landforms and life on Earth ultimately come from the Sun.

QUESTION: 19

Which of the following factors contributes to the evolution of landforms on Earth?

1. Movement of magma within the Earth

2. Growth and decay of vegetation

3. Erosion and deposition

4. Frost action

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • It causes plate movements (tectonics), results in volcanic eruptions and is, therefore, a significant factor in the evolution of landforms on Earth.

  • If vegetation cover is high, it protects the surface from rain splash as root mass is sufficient to stabilise the materials on the slope. Even surface runoff becomes less effective in carving out landforms in areas where there is dense vegetation since there is little scope for soil erosion.

  • When water freezes to ice, its volume increases. Under specific circumstances, this expansion can displace or fracture rocks where water exists in its pores. Repeated frost action thus weathers (breaks) the rocks.

  • In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. Glaciers move at a very slow rate. When they do, they erode the soil beneath them.

  • Also, the formation of glaciers and their retreat affects the soil profile of the region and thus the landforms.

QUESTION: 20

Geological folds are undulations or waves of the stratified rocks of the Earth’s crust. Consider the following statements:

1. Hydrostatic and pore pressure

2. Temperature gradient on the surface of the Earth

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, and temperature gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments.

  • Water pressure from underneath the rocks is tremendous and it can exert differential pressure on the rocks to deform them from one or the other sides, causing the formation of a fold.

  • The temperature gradient can cause elongation of one part and shortening of the other part, leading to the formation of faults.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following statements about rock formation:

1. Magnetically susceptible minerals get aligned to the Earth’s magnetic field during the period of rock formation.

2. Foliated metamorphic rocks are formed within the Earth’s interior under extremely high pressures that arc unequal in different directions.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • This comes due to geomagnetism. Magnetic response of rocks is determined by amounts and susceptibilities of constituent minerals. Sedimentary rocks have very low susceptibility to the magnetic field of Earth. So, there is little alignment in their constituents in response to Earth’s magnetic field. For ultramafic rocks, it is the highest.

  • Foliation refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks. When the pressure is greater in one direction than in the others (directed pressure), it causes the minerals in the original rock to reorient themselves with the long and flat minerals aligning perpendicular to the greatest pressure direction. This reduces the overall pressure on the rock and gives it a striped look.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements:

1. Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores.

2. Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.

3. The Katanga Plateau located in the Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC) is known for rich deposits of Copper.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals but without definite composition of constituent minerals. Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores.

  • Although more than 2,800 types of minerals have been identified, only about 100 are considered ore minerals. The Katanga, or Shaba, Plateau is a farming and ranching region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  • Located in the southeastern Katanga Province, it is 1220 m (4,000 ft) above sea level and is rich in copper and uranium deposits. It is the source of the Lufira River, which becomes the Lualaba River.

  • Lake Tshangalele, an artificial lake created by a dam on the Lufira, is an important ecological site on the plateau.

QUESTION: 23

The oldest rocks in the world can be found in which of these regions?

Solution: Rocks in Western Australia date from 4,300 million years ago, only 300 million years after the Earth was formed. These are zircon stones.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements:

1. Granite is mainly made up of quartz, feldspar and mica.

2. Quartz is more quickly weathered than feldspar.

3. Regolith is the mineral remains of the decomposed rocks which form the basis of soil.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect?

Solution:
  • Felspar is more quickly weathered than the quartz. Hence Statement 2 is wrong.

QUESTION: 25

What is/are the difference(s) between extrusive and intrusive rocks?

1. Extrusive rocks are formed from magma, whereas intrusive rocks are formed from lava.

2. Extrusive rocks arc fine-grained, whereas intrusive rocks arc coarse-grained.

3. Extrusive rocks form over a much longer duration of time compared to intrusive rocks.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • The key difference between intrusive and extrusive rocks is that the intrusive rocks are formed from magma whereas the extrusive rocks are formed from lava. Rest of the differences follow from the basic structure.

Intrusive rocks: With no air to cool the magma, these rocks are formed very slowly Composition of these rocks reflects the presence of large crystals. These crystals interlock to form the rock. These rocks take a very large amount of time to solidify and they remain buried deep inside the surface of the Earth being surrounded by country rocks that have been there already.

Extrusive rocks: Sometimes, molten rocks find a way to come out of the surface of the Earth through cracks and openings. This magma flows in the form of lava and cools down quickly as it comes into contact with air. Igneous rocks that are formed from the magma that pours out of the surface of the Earth arc called extrusive rocks. As these rocks cool down and solidify very quickly, they do not get sufficient time to form target crystals. Thus, they have small crystals and boast a fine texture.

QUESTION: 26

Consider the following statements:

1. Generally metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.

2. Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals.

3. Sedimentary rocks can be formed organically also.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Iron ore in north Sweden; copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada; iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria arc are some examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary rocks.

  • Sedimentary rocks are classified into three major groups as follows:

(1) Mechanically formed conglomerate limestone, loess, sandstone, shale, etc.

(2) Organically formed chalk, coal geyserite, limestone, etc.

(3) Chemically formed chert, limestone halite, potash, etc.

QUESTION: 27

Consider the following statements about rocks:

1. Igneous rocks arc also called as primary rocks.

2. Igneous and sedimentary rocks can change into metamorphic rocks under great heat and pressure.

3. Sandstone is a metamorphic rock.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution: Sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed by sedimentation of sand grains.

QUESTION: 28

Which of these rocks make up for large portions of the crust of Earth?

1. Granitic rocks

2. Basaltic rocks

3. Pumice rocks

4. Obsidian rocks

Choose the correct answer from the following codes:

Solution: Sial and sima share the major proportions of Earth’s crust which occupy the continental and oceanic crust. Granite and basaltic rocks differ in silica content.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements about igneous rocks:

1. They are generally crystalline.

2. They occur in layers and often contain fossils.

3. Igneous rocks are always acidic.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Igneous rocks are formed by solidification of magma and crystals arc formed upon cooling.

  • Sedimentary rocks contain fossils. Basaltic rocks which are also the type of igneous rocks are basic due to lower silica content. The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Solution:
  • Shale is metamorphosed into Schist. Whereas sandstone is metamorphosed into Quartzite

  • Granite is metamorphosed into Gneiss

  • Clay is metamorphosed into Slate

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