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FUNDAMENTAL 
RIGHTS
ARTICLE 21
Page 2


FUNDAMENTAL 
RIGHTS
ARTICLE 21
“Protection of Life 
and Personal 
Liberty” 
Page 3


FUNDAMENTAL 
RIGHTS
ARTICLE 21
“Protection of Life 
and Personal 
Liberty” 
•The fundamental right under Article 21 is 
one of the most important rights 
provided under the Constitution which 
has been described as the heart of 
fundamental rights by the Apex Court in 
Unni Krishnans case. 
Page 4


FUNDAMENTAL 
RIGHTS
ARTICLE 21
“Protection of Life 
and Personal 
Liberty” 
•The fundamental right under Article 21 is 
one of the most important rights 
provided under the Constitution which 
has been described as the heart of 
fundamental rights by the Apex Court in 
Unni Krishnans case. 
Article 21
•Article 21 of Indian Constitution provides for 
“Protection of Life and Personal Liberty” 
and reads as “No person shall be deprived 
of his life or personal liberty except 
according to procedure established by 
law.”
Page 5


FUNDAMENTAL 
RIGHTS
ARTICLE 21
“Protection of Life 
and Personal 
Liberty” 
•The fundamental right under Article 21 is 
one of the most important rights 
provided under the Constitution which 
has been described as the heart of 
fundamental rights by the Apex Court in 
Unni Krishnans case. 
Article 21
•Article 21 of Indian Constitution provides for 
“Protection of Life and Personal Liberty” 
and reads as “No person shall be deprived 
of his life or personal liberty except 
according to procedure established by 
law.”
• It clearly means that this fundamental right has been provided 
against the state only
• The provision of Article 21 was constructed narrowly at the 
initial stage but the law in respect of life and personal liberty of a 
person was developed gradually and a liberal interpretation was 
given to these words. 
• New dimensions have been added to the scope of Article21 
from time to time.
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FAQs on PPT: Article 21 - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is Article 21 of the Indian Constitution?
Ans. Article 21 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to life and personal liberty to every citizen of India. It states that no person shall be deprived of their life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law.
2. What does the right to life and personal liberty entail under Article 21?
Ans. The right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 includes the right to live with dignity, right to privacy, right to livelihood, right to shelter, right to education, and various other fundamental rights that ensure the overall well-being of individuals.
3. Can the right to life and personal liberty be suspended in any situation?
Ans. The right to life and personal liberty can only be suspended during a state of emergency, such as during a proclamation of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution or under certain circumstances mentioned in the Constitution itself. Otherwise, it is considered a fundamental right that cannot be suspended.
4. What is the significance of Article 21 in the Indian legal system?
Ans. Article 21 is considered one of the most important fundamental rights in the Indian legal system. It acts as a safeguard against arbitrary state action and ensures that individuals have the right to live with dignity and personal freedom. It has been interpreted by the courts to include a wide range of rights and has played a crucial role in protecting the rights of citizens.
5. Are there any limitations to the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21?
Ans. While Article 21 provides a broad protection of the right to life and personal liberty, it is subject to certain reasonable restrictions imposed by law. These restrictions may be imposed in the interest of public order, morality, or the security of the state. However, any such restrictions must be reasonable and should not infringe upon the essence of the right itself.
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