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M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 39 39 39 39 39
The use of money spans a very large
part of our everyday life. Look around
you and you would easily be able to
identify several transactions involving
money in any single day. Can you
make a list of these? In many of these
transactions, goods are being bought
and sold with the use of money. In
some of these transactions, services
are being exchanged with money.  For
some, there might not be any actual
transfer of money taking place now
but a promise to pay money later.
Have you ever wondered why
transactions are made in
money? The reason is simple.
A person holding money can easily
exchange it for any commodity or
service that he or she might want.
Thus everyone  prefers to receive
payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that
they want.  Take the case of a shoe
manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes
in the market and buy wheat.  The
shoe manufacturer will first exchange
shoes that he has produced for
money, and then exchange the money
for wheat. Imagine how much more
difficult it would be if the shoe
manufacturer had to directly
exchange shoes for wheat without the
use of money. He would have to look
for a wheat growing farmer who not
only wants to sell wheat
but also wants to buy the
shoes in exchange.
That is, both parties
have to agree to
sell and buy each
others commodities.
This is known as
double coincidence
of wants. What a person
desires to sell is exactly what the
other wishes to buy. In a barter
system where goods are directly
exchanged without the use of money,
double coincidence of wants is an
essential feature.
In contrast, in an economy where
money is in use, money by providing
the crucial intermediate step
eliminates the need for double
coincidence of wants. It is no longer
necessary for the shoe manufacturer
to look for a farmer who will buy his
shoes and at the same time sell him
MONEY MONEY
MONEY MONEY MONEY
AND AND AND AND AND
CREDIT CREDIT
CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT
CHAPTER 3
MONEY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
I’LL GIVE
YOU SHOES
FOR YOUR
WHEAT.
I DON’T NEED
SHOES. I NEED
CLOTHES.
I WANT SHOES.
BUT I DON’T HAVE
WHEAT.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 39 39 39 39 39
The use of money spans a very large
part of our everyday life. Look around
you and you would easily be able to
identify several transactions involving
money in any single day. Can you
make a list of these? In many of these
transactions, goods are being bought
and sold with the use of money. In
some of these transactions, services
are being exchanged with money.  For
some, there might not be any actual
transfer of money taking place now
but a promise to pay money later.
Have you ever wondered why
transactions are made in
money? The reason is simple.
A person holding money can easily
exchange it for any commodity or
service that he or she might want.
Thus everyone  prefers to receive
payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that
they want.  Take the case of a shoe
manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes
in the market and buy wheat.  The
shoe manufacturer will first exchange
shoes that he has produced for
money, and then exchange the money
for wheat. Imagine how much more
difficult it would be if the shoe
manufacturer had to directly
exchange shoes for wheat without the
use of money. He would have to look
for a wheat growing farmer who not
only wants to sell wheat
but also wants to buy the
shoes in exchange.
That is, both parties
have to agree to
sell and buy each
others commodities.
This is known as
double coincidence
of wants. What a person
desires to sell is exactly what the
other wishes to buy. In a barter
system where goods are directly
exchanged without the use of money,
double coincidence of wants is an
essential feature.
In contrast, in an economy where
money is in use, money by providing
the crucial intermediate step
eliminates the need for double
coincidence of wants. It is no longer
necessary for the shoe manufacturer
to look for a farmer who will buy his
shoes and at the same time sell him
MONEY MONEY
MONEY MONEY MONEY
AND AND AND AND AND
CREDIT CREDIT
CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT
CHAPTER 3
MONEY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
I’LL GIVE
YOU SHOES
FOR YOUR
WHEAT.
I DON’T NEED
SHOES. I NEED
CLOTHES.
I WANT SHOES.
BUT I DON’T HAVE
WHEAT.
Rationalised 2023-24
40 40 40 40 40 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
We have seen that money is
something that can act as a medium
of exchange in transactions.  Before
the introduction of coins, a variety of
objects was used as money. For
example, since the very early ages,
Indians used  grains and cattle as
money. Thereafter came the use of
metallic coins — gold, silver, copper
coins — a phase which continued well
into the last century.
Currency
Modern forms of money include
currency — paper notes and coins.
Unlike the things that were used as
money earlier, modern currency is not
made of precious metal such as gold,
silver and copper.  And unlike grain
and cattle, they are neither of
everyday use. The modern currency
is without any use of its own.
Then, why is it accepted as a
medium of exchange?  It is accepted
as a medium of exchange because the
currency is authorised by the
government of the country.
In India, the Reserve Bank of India
issues currency notes on behalf of the
central government. As per Indian
law, no other individual or
organisation is allowed to issue
currency. Moreover, the law legalises
the use of rupee as a medium of
payment that cannot be refused in
settling transactions in India. No
individual in India can legally refuse
a payment made in rupees. Hence,
the rupee is widely accepted as a
medium of exchange.
Deposits with Banks
The other form in which people hold
money is as deposits with banks. At
a point of time, people need only some
currency  for their day-to-day needs.
For instance, workers who receive
their salaries at the end of each month
have extra cash at the beginning of
the month. What do people do with
this extra cash? They deposit it with
the banks by opening a bank
account in their name. Banks accept
the deposits and also pay an amount
as interest on the deposits. In this way
people’s money is safe with the
banks and it earns an amount as
interest.  People also have the
provision to withdraw the money as
and when they require. Since the
deposits in the bank accounts can be
withdrawn on demand, these
deposits are called demand deposits.
1. How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things?
2. Can you think of some examples of goods / services being exchanged or wages being
paid through barter?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
MODERN FORMS OF  MONEY
Early punch-
marked coins
(may be 2500
years old)
Gupta
coins
Gold
Mohar
from
Akbar’s
reign
wheat. All he has to do is find a buyer
for his shoes. Once he has exchanged
his shoes for money, he can purchase
wheat or any other commodity in the
market. Since money acts as an
intermediate in the exchange process,
it is called a medium of exchange.
Tughlaq
coin
Modern coin
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 39 39 39 39 39
The use of money spans a very large
part of our everyday life. Look around
you and you would easily be able to
identify several transactions involving
money in any single day. Can you
make a list of these? In many of these
transactions, goods are being bought
and sold with the use of money. In
some of these transactions, services
are being exchanged with money.  For
some, there might not be any actual
transfer of money taking place now
but a promise to pay money later.
Have you ever wondered why
transactions are made in
money? The reason is simple.
A person holding money can easily
exchange it for any commodity or
service that he or she might want.
Thus everyone  prefers to receive
payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that
they want.  Take the case of a shoe
manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes
in the market and buy wheat.  The
shoe manufacturer will first exchange
shoes that he has produced for
money, and then exchange the money
for wheat. Imagine how much more
difficult it would be if the shoe
manufacturer had to directly
exchange shoes for wheat without the
use of money. He would have to look
for a wheat growing farmer who not
only wants to sell wheat
but also wants to buy the
shoes in exchange.
That is, both parties
have to agree to
sell and buy each
others commodities.
This is known as
double coincidence
of wants. What a person
desires to sell is exactly what the
other wishes to buy. In a barter
system where goods are directly
exchanged without the use of money,
double coincidence of wants is an
essential feature.
In contrast, in an economy where
money is in use, money by providing
the crucial intermediate step
eliminates the need for double
coincidence of wants. It is no longer
necessary for the shoe manufacturer
to look for a farmer who will buy his
shoes and at the same time sell him
MONEY MONEY
MONEY MONEY MONEY
AND AND AND AND AND
CREDIT CREDIT
CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT
CHAPTER 3
MONEY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
I’LL GIVE
YOU SHOES
FOR YOUR
WHEAT.
I DON’T NEED
SHOES. I NEED
CLOTHES.
I WANT SHOES.
BUT I DON’T HAVE
WHEAT.
Rationalised 2023-24
40 40 40 40 40 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
We have seen that money is
something that can act as a medium
of exchange in transactions.  Before
the introduction of coins, a variety of
objects was used as money. For
example, since the very early ages,
Indians used  grains and cattle as
money. Thereafter came the use of
metallic coins — gold, silver, copper
coins — a phase which continued well
into the last century.
Currency
Modern forms of money include
currency — paper notes and coins.
Unlike the things that were used as
money earlier, modern currency is not
made of precious metal such as gold,
silver and copper.  And unlike grain
and cattle, they are neither of
everyday use. The modern currency
is without any use of its own.
Then, why is it accepted as a
medium of exchange?  It is accepted
as a medium of exchange because the
currency is authorised by the
government of the country.
In India, the Reserve Bank of India
issues currency notes on behalf of the
central government. As per Indian
law, no other individual or
organisation is allowed to issue
currency. Moreover, the law legalises
the use of rupee as a medium of
payment that cannot be refused in
settling transactions in India. No
individual in India can legally refuse
a payment made in rupees. Hence,
the rupee is widely accepted as a
medium of exchange.
Deposits with Banks
The other form in which people hold
money is as deposits with banks. At
a point of time, people need only some
currency  for their day-to-day needs.
For instance, workers who receive
their salaries at the end of each month
have extra cash at the beginning of
the month. What do people do with
this extra cash? They deposit it with
the banks by opening a bank
account in their name. Banks accept
the deposits and also pay an amount
as interest on the deposits. In this way
people’s money is safe with the
banks and it earns an amount as
interest.  People also have the
provision to withdraw the money as
and when they require. Since the
deposits in the bank accounts can be
withdrawn on demand, these
deposits are called demand deposits.
1. How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things?
2. Can you think of some examples of goods / services being exchanged or wages being
paid through barter?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
MODERN FORMS OF  MONEY
Early punch-
marked coins
(may be 2500
years old)
Gupta
coins
Gold
Mohar
from
Akbar’s
reign
wheat. All he has to do is find a buyer
for his shoes. Once he has exchanged
his shoes for money, he can purchase
wheat or any other commodity in the
market. Since money acts as an
intermediate in the exchange process,
it is called a medium of exchange.
Tughlaq
coin
Modern coin
Rationalised 2023-24
M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 41 41 41 41 41
Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments
A shoe manufacturer, M. Salim has to make a payment to the leather supplier and writes
a cheque for a specific amount. This means that the shoe manufacturer instructs his
bank to pay this amount to the leather supplier. The leather supplier takes this cheque,
and  deposits it in his own account in the bank. The money is transferred from one bank
account to another bank account in a couple of days. The transaction is complete without
any payment of cash.
Thus we see that demand deposits
share the essential features of money.
The facility of cheques against demand
deposits makes it possible to directly
settle payments without the use of cash.
Since demand deposits are accepted
widely as a means of payment, along
with currency, they constitute money
in the modern economy.
You must remember the role that
the banks play here. But for the
banks, there would be no demand
deposits and no payments by
cheques against these deposits.  The
modern forms of money — currency
and deposits — are closely linked to
the working of the modern banking
system.
Account number
Coding used by banks Cheque number
Demand deposits offer another
interesting facility. It is this facility
which lends it the essential
characteristics of money (that of a
medium of exchange). You would
have heard of payments being
made by cheques instead of cash.
For payment through cheque, the
payer who has an account with the
bank, makes out a cheque for a
specific amount. A cheque is a
paper instructing the bank to pay
a specific amount from the
person’s account to the person in
whose name the cheque has been
issued.
Bank branch
code
LET US TRY AND UNDERSTAND
HOW CHEQUE PAYMENTS ARE
MADE AND REALISED WITH
AN EXAMPLE.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 39 39 39 39 39
The use of money spans a very large
part of our everyday life. Look around
you and you would easily be able to
identify several transactions involving
money in any single day. Can you
make a list of these? In many of these
transactions, goods are being bought
and sold with the use of money. In
some of these transactions, services
are being exchanged with money.  For
some, there might not be any actual
transfer of money taking place now
but a promise to pay money later.
Have you ever wondered why
transactions are made in
money? The reason is simple.
A person holding money can easily
exchange it for any commodity or
service that he or she might want.
Thus everyone  prefers to receive
payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that
they want.  Take the case of a shoe
manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes
in the market and buy wheat.  The
shoe manufacturer will first exchange
shoes that he has produced for
money, and then exchange the money
for wheat. Imagine how much more
difficult it would be if the shoe
manufacturer had to directly
exchange shoes for wheat without the
use of money. He would have to look
for a wheat growing farmer who not
only wants to sell wheat
but also wants to buy the
shoes in exchange.
That is, both parties
have to agree to
sell and buy each
others commodities.
This is known as
double coincidence
of wants. What a person
desires to sell is exactly what the
other wishes to buy. In a barter
system where goods are directly
exchanged without the use of money,
double coincidence of wants is an
essential feature.
In contrast, in an economy where
money is in use, money by providing
the crucial intermediate step
eliminates the need for double
coincidence of wants. It is no longer
necessary for the shoe manufacturer
to look for a farmer who will buy his
shoes and at the same time sell him
MONEY MONEY
MONEY MONEY MONEY
AND AND AND AND AND
CREDIT CREDIT
CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT
CHAPTER 3
MONEY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
I’LL GIVE
YOU SHOES
FOR YOUR
WHEAT.
I DON’T NEED
SHOES. I NEED
CLOTHES.
I WANT SHOES.
BUT I DON’T HAVE
WHEAT.
Rationalised 2023-24
40 40 40 40 40 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
We have seen that money is
something that can act as a medium
of exchange in transactions.  Before
the introduction of coins, a variety of
objects was used as money. For
example, since the very early ages,
Indians used  grains and cattle as
money. Thereafter came the use of
metallic coins — gold, silver, copper
coins — a phase which continued well
into the last century.
Currency
Modern forms of money include
currency — paper notes and coins.
Unlike the things that were used as
money earlier, modern currency is not
made of precious metal such as gold,
silver and copper.  And unlike grain
and cattle, they are neither of
everyday use. The modern currency
is without any use of its own.
Then, why is it accepted as a
medium of exchange?  It is accepted
as a medium of exchange because the
currency is authorised by the
government of the country.
In India, the Reserve Bank of India
issues currency notes on behalf of the
central government. As per Indian
law, no other individual or
organisation is allowed to issue
currency. Moreover, the law legalises
the use of rupee as a medium of
payment that cannot be refused in
settling transactions in India. No
individual in India can legally refuse
a payment made in rupees. Hence,
the rupee is widely accepted as a
medium of exchange.
Deposits with Banks
The other form in which people hold
money is as deposits with banks. At
a point of time, people need only some
currency  for their day-to-day needs.
For instance, workers who receive
their salaries at the end of each month
have extra cash at the beginning of
the month. What do people do with
this extra cash? They deposit it with
the banks by opening a bank
account in their name. Banks accept
the deposits and also pay an amount
as interest on the deposits. In this way
people’s money is safe with the
banks and it earns an amount as
interest.  People also have the
provision to withdraw the money as
and when they require. Since the
deposits in the bank accounts can be
withdrawn on demand, these
deposits are called demand deposits.
1. How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things?
2. Can you think of some examples of goods / services being exchanged or wages being
paid through barter?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
MODERN FORMS OF  MONEY
Early punch-
marked coins
(may be 2500
years old)
Gupta
coins
Gold
Mohar
from
Akbar’s
reign
wheat. All he has to do is find a buyer
for his shoes. Once he has exchanged
his shoes for money, he can purchase
wheat or any other commodity in the
market. Since money acts as an
intermediate in the exchange process,
it is called a medium of exchange.
Tughlaq
coin
Modern coin
Rationalised 2023-24
M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 41 41 41 41 41
Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments
A shoe manufacturer, M. Salim has to make a payment to the leather supplier and writes
a cheque for a specific amount. This means that the shoe manufacturer instructs his
bank to pay this amount to the leather supplier. The leather supplier takes this cheque,
and  deposits it in his own account in the bank. The money is transferred from one bank
account to another bank account in a couple of days. The transaction is complete without
any payment of cash.
Thus we see that demand deposits
share the essential features of money.
The facility of cheques against demand
deposits makes it possible to directly
settle payments without the use of cash.
Since demand deposits are accepted
widely as a means of payment, along
with currency, they constitute money
in the modern economy.
You must remember the role that
the banks play here. But for the
banks, there would be no demand
deposits and no payments by
cheques against these deposits.  The
modern forms of money — currency
and deposits — are closely linked to
the working of the modern banking
system.
Account number
Coding used by banks Cheque number
Demand deposits offer another
interesting facility. It is this facility
which lends it the essential
characteristics of money (that of a
medium of exchange). You would
have heard of payments being
made by cheques instead of cash.
For payment through cheque, the
payer who has an account with the
bank, makes out a cheque for a
specific amount. A cheque is a
paper instructing the bank to pay
a specific amount from the
person’s account to the person in
whose name the cheque has been
issued.
Bank branch
code
LET US TRY AND UNDERSTAND
HOW CHEQUE PAYMENTS ARE
MADE AND REALISED WITH
AN EXAMPLE.
Rationalised 2023-24
42 42 42 42 42 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Let us take the story of banks further.
What do the banks do with the
deposits which they accept from the
public? There is an interesting
mechanism at work here. Banks keep
only a small proportion of their
deposits as cash with themselves.  For
example, banks in India these days
hold about 15 per cent of their
deposits as cash. This is kept as
provision to pay the depositors who
might come to withdraw money from
the bank on any given day. Since, on
any particular day, only some of its
many depositors come to withdraw
cash, the bank is able to manage with
this cash.
Banks use the major portion of the
deposits to extend loans.  There is a
huge demand for loans for various
economic activities. W e shall read more
about this in the following sections.
Banks make use of the deposits to
meet the loan requirements of the
people.  In this way, banks mediate
between those who have surplus
funds (the depositors) and those who
are in need of these funds (the
borrowers). Banks charge a higher
interest rate on loans than what they
offer on deposits. The difference
between what is charged from
borrowers and what is paid to
depositors is their main source of
income.
LOAN ACTIVITIES OF BANKS
People make
deposits
People make
withdrawals and
get interest
People take
loans
People repay
loans with
interest
DEPOSITORS BORROWERS
1. M. Salim wants to withdraw Rs 20,000 in cash for making payments. How would he
write a cheque to withdraw money?
2. Tick the correct answer.
After the transaction between Salim and Prem,
(i) Salim’s balance in his bank account increases, and Prem’s balance increases.
(ii) Salim’s balance in his bank account decreases and Prem’s balance increases.
(iii) Salim’s balance in his bank account increases and Prem’s balance decreases.
3. Why are demand deposits considered as money?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
What do you think would happen
if all the depositors went to ask
for their money at the same time?
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 39 39 39 39 39
The use of money spans a very large
part of our everyday life. Look around
you and you would easily be able to
identify several transactions involving
money in any single day. Can you
make a list of these? In many of these
transactions, goods are being bought
and sold with the use of money. In
some of these transactions, services
are being exchanged with money.  For
some, there might not be any actual
transfer of money taking place now
but a promise to pay money later.
Have you ever wondered why
transactions are made in
money? The reason is simple.
A person holding money can easily
exchange it for any commodity or
service that he or she might want.
Thus everyone  prefers to receive
payments in money and then
exchange the money for things that
they want.  Take the case of a shoe
manufacturer. He wants to sell shoes
in the market and buy wheat.  The
shoe manufacturer will first exchange
shoes that he has produced for
money, and then exchange the money
for wheat. Imagine how much more
difficult it would be if the shoe
manufacturer had to directly
exchange shoes for wheat without the
use of money. He would have to look
for a wheat growing farmer who not
only wants to sell wheat
but also wants to buy the
shoes in exchange.
That is, both parties
have to agree to
sell and buy each
others commodities.
This is known as
double coincidence
of wants. What a person
desires to sell is exactly what the
other wishes to buy. In a barter
system where goods are directly
exchanged without the use of money,
double coincidence of wants is an
essential feature.
In contrast, in an economy where
money is in use, money by providing
the crucial intermediate step
eliminates the need for double
coincidence of wants. It is no longer
necessary for the shoe manufacturer
to look for a farmer who will buy his
shoes and at the same time sell him
MONEY MONEY
MONEY MONEY MONEY
AND AND AND AND AND
CREDIT CREDIT
CREDIT CREDIT CREDIT
CHAPTER 3
MONEY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE
I’LL GIVE
YOU SHOES
FOR YOUR
WHEAT.
I DON’T NEED
SHOES. I NEED
CLOTHES.
I WANT SHOES.
BUT I DON’T HAVE
WHEAT.
Rationalised 2023-24
40 40 40 40 40 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
We have seen that money is
something that can act as a medium
of exchange in transactions.  Before
the introduction of coins, a variety of
objects was used as money. For
example, since the very early ages,
Indians used  grains and cattle as
money. Thereafter came the use of
metallic coins — gold, silver, copper
coins — a phase which continued well
into the last century.
Currency
Modern forms of money include
currency — paper notes and coins.
Unlike the things that were used as
money earlier, modern currency is not
made of precious metal such as gold,
silver and copper.  And unlike grain
and cattle, they are neither of
everyday use. The modern currency
is without any use of its own.
Then, why is it accepted as a
medium of exchange?  It is accepted
as a medium of exchange because the
currency is authorised by the
government of the country.
In India, the Reserve Bank of India
issues currency notes on behalf of the
central government. As per Indian
law, no other individual or
organisation is allowed to issue
currency. Moreover, the law legalises
the use of rupee as a medium of
payment that cannot be refused in
settling transactions in India. No
individual in India can legally refuse
a payment made in rupees. Hence,
the rupee is widely accepted as a
medium of exchange.
Deposits with Banks
The other form in which people hold
money is as deposits with banks. At
a point of time, people need only some
currency  for their day-to-day needs.
For instance, workers who receive
their salaries at the end of each month
have extra cash at the beginning of
the month. What do people do with
this extra cash? They deposit it with
the banks by opening a bank
account in their name. Banks accept
the deposits and also pay an amount
as interest on the deposits. In this way
people’s money is safe with the
banks and it earns an amount as
interest.  People also have the
provision to withdraw the money as
and when they require. Since the
deposits in the bank accounts can be
withdrawn on demand, these
deposits are called demand deposits.
1. How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things?
2. Can you think of some examples of goods / services being exchanged or wages being
paid through barter?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
MODERN FORMS OF  MONEY
Early punch-
marked coins
(may be 2500
years old)
Gupta
coins
Gold
Mohar
from
Akbar’s
reign
wheat. All he has to do is find a buyer
for his shoes. Once he has exchanged
his shoes for money, he can purchase
wheat or any other commodity in the
market. Since money acts as an
intermediate in the exchange process,
it is called a medium of exchange.
Tughlaq
coin
Modern coin
Rationalised 2023-24
M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 41 41 41 41 41
Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments Cheque Payments
A shoe manufacturer, M. Salim has to make a payment to the leather supplier and writes
a cheque for a specific amount. This means that the shoe manufacturer instructs his
bank to pay this amount to the leather supplier. The leather supplier takes this cheque,
and  deposits it in his own account in the bank. The money is transferred from one bank
account to another bank account in a couple of days. The transaction is complete without
any payment of cash.
Thus we see that demand deposits
share the essential features of money.
The facility of cheques against demand
deposits makes it possible to directly
settle payments without the use of cash.
Since demand deposits are accepted
widely as a means of payment, along
with currency, they constitute money
in the modern economy.
You must remember the role that
the banks play here. But for the
banks, there would be no demand
deposits and no payments by
cheques against these deposits.  The
modern forms of money — currency
and deposits — are closely linked to
the working of the modern banking
system.
Account number
Coding used by banks Cheque number
Demand deposits offer another
interesting facility. It is this facility
which lends it the essential
characteristics of money (that of a
medium of exchange). You would
have heard of payments being
made by cheques instead of cash.
For payment through cheque, the
payer who has an account with the
bank, makes out a cheque for a
specific amount. A cheque is a
paper instructing the bank to pay
a specific amount from the
person’s account to the person in
whose name the cheque has been
issued.
Bank branch
code
LET US TRY AND UNDERSTAND
HOW CHEQUE PAYMENTS ARE
MADE AND REALISED WITH
AN EXAMPLE.
Rationalised 2023-24
42 42 42 42 42 U U U U UNDERST NDERST NDERST NDERST NDERSTANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING ANDING E E E E ECONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC CONOMIC D D D D DEVEL EVEL EVEL EVEL EVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Let us take the story of banks further.
What do the banks do with the
deposits which they accept from the
public? There is an interesting
mechanism at work here. Banks keep
only a small proportion of their
deposits as cash with themselves.  For
example, banks in India these days
hold about 15 per cent of their
deposits as cash. This is kept as
provision to pay the depositors who
might come to withdraw money from
the bank on any given day. Since, on
any particular day, only some of its
many depositors come to withdraw
cash, the bank is able to manage with
this cash.
Banks use the major portion of the
deposits to extend loans.  There is a
huge demand for loans for various
economic activities. W e shall read more
about this in the following sections.
Banks make use of the deposits to
meet the loan requirements of the
people.  In this way, banks mediate
between those who have surplus
funds (the depositors) and those who
are in need of these funds (the
borrowers). Banks charge a higher
interest rate on loans than what they
offer on deposits. The difference
between what is charged from
borrowers and what is paid to
depositors is their main source of
income.
LOAN ACTIVITIES OF BANKS
People make
deposits
People make
withdrawals and
get interest
People take
loans
People repay
loans with
interest
DEPOSITORS BORROWERS
1. M. Salim wants to withdraw Rs 20,000 in cash for making payments. How would he
write a cheque to withdraw money?
2. Tick the correct answer.
After the transaction between Salim and Prem,
(i) Salim’s balance in his bank account increases, and Prem’s balance increases.
(ii) Salim’s balance in his bank account decreases and Prem’s balance increases.
(iii) Salim’s balance in his bank account increases and Prem’s balance decreases.
3. Why are demand deposits considered as money?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
What do you think would happen
if all the depositors went to ask
for their money at the same time?
Rationalised 2023-24
M M M M MONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY ONEY     AND AND AND AND AND C C C C CREDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT REDIT 43 43 43 43 43
A large number of transactions in our day-to-day activities
involve credit in some form or the other. Credit (loan) refers to
an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with
money, goods or services in return for the promise of future
payment. Let us see how credit works through the following
two examples.
(1) Festival Season (1) Festival Season (1) Festival Season (1) Festival Season (1) Festival Season
It is festival season two months from now
and the shoe manufacturer, Salim, has
received an order from a large trader in
town for 3,000 pairs of shoes to be
delivered in a month time. To complete
production on time, Salim has to hire a few
more workers for stitching and pasting
work. He has to purchase the raw
materials. To meet these expenses, Salim
obtains loans from two sources. First, he
asks the leather supplier to supply leather
now and promises to pay him later.
Second, he obtains loan in cash from the
large trader as advance payment for
1000 pairs of shoes with a promise to
deliver the whole order by the end of the
month.
At the end of the month, Salim is able to
deliver the order , make a good profit, and
repay the money that he had borrowed.
(2) Swapna’s Problem (2) Swapna’s Problem (2) Swapna’s Problem (2) Swapna’s Problem (2) Swapna’s Problem
TWO DIFFERENT CREDIT SITUATIONS
In this case, Salim obtains credit to meet the working
capital needs of production. The credit helps him to meet the
ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time,
and thereby increase his earnings. Credit therefore plays a
vital and positive role in this situation.
Swapna, a small farmer , grows groundnut on her three
acres of land. She takes a loan from the moneylender
to meet the expenses of cultivation, hoping that her
harvest would help repay the loan. Midway through
the season the crop is hit by pests and the crop
fails. Though Swapna sprays  her crops with
expensive pesticides, it makes little difference. She
is unable to repay the moneylender and the debt
grows over the year into a large amount. Next
year, Swapna takes a fresh loan for cultivation.
It is a normal crop this year. But the earnings
are not enough to cover the old loan.
She is caught in debt. She has to sell
a part of the land to pay off the debt.
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Money & Credit - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is the importance of money in our daily lives?
Ans. Money is important in our daily lives as it acts as a medium of exchange, allowing us to buy goods and services. It also serves as a measure of value, helping us compare the worth of different products. Money provides a store of value, enabling us to save for future needs and investments. Additionally, money is crucial for economic growth and development, as it facilitates trade and investment.
2. What is credit and why is it important?
Ans. Credit refers to the borrowing of money or resources with the promise of repayment in the future. It is important as it enables individuals and businesses to meet their immediate financial needs without having to possess the required funds at the time. Credit allows for the purchase of expensive items like houses or cars through loans, which can be paid back over an extended period. It also supports economic growth by promoting investments and entrepreneurship.
3. What are the different types of credit available to individuals?
Ans. There are several types of credit available to individuals. These include personal loans, credit cards, mortgages, student loans, and auto loans. Personal loans are unsecured loans that can be used for various purposes. Credit cards provide a revolving line of credit for making purchases. Mortgages enable individuals to buy homes. Student loans assist in funding education expenses. Auto loans help in purchasing vehicles. Each type of credit has its own terms, interest rates, and repayment schedules.
4. How does money solve the problem of double coincidence of wants?
Ans. The problem of double coincidence of wants refers to the situation where two parties in a barter system need to have a desired good or service that the other party wants. Money solves this problem by acting as a universally accepted medium of exchange. With money, individuals can sell their goods or services for money and then use that money to buy the goods or services they need. Money eliminates the need for direct exchange and makes transactions more convenient and efficient.
5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of borrowing money?
Ans. The advantages of borrowing money include immediate access to funds for meeting financial needs, the ability to purchase expensive items like homes or cars, and the opportunity to invest in business ventures. Borrowing money also allows for the smooth flow of economic activities and promotes economic growth. However, there are also disadvantages to borrowing money, such as the obligation to repay the borrowed amount with interest, the risk of falling into debt if not managed properly, and the potential impact on one's credit score. It is important to carefully consider the terms and conditions of borrowing before taking on any debt.
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