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CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CHAPTER 5
The collage you see below contains
some news clippings of Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission
verdicts. Why did the people go to
these organisations in these cases?
These verdicts came about because
some people persisted and struggled
to get justice. In what ways were they
denied justice? More importantly,
what are the ways in which they can
exercise their rights as consumers to
get a fair deal from the sellers when
they felt they had been denied a just
treatment?
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CHAPTER 5
The collage you see below contains
some news clippings of Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission
verdicts. Why did the people go to
these organisations in these cases?
These verdicts came about because
some people persisted and struggled
to get justice. In what ways were they
denied justice? More importantly,
what are the ways in which they can
exercise their rights as consumers to
get a fair deal from the sellers when
they felt they had been denied a just
treatment?
Rationalised 2023-24
We participate in the market both as
producers and consumers. As
producers of goods and services we
could be working in any of the sectors
discussed earlier such as agriculture,
industry, or services. Consumers
participate in the market when they
purchase goods and services that they
need. These are the final goods that
people as consumers use.
In the preceding chapters we
discussed the need for rules and
regulations or steps that would
promote development. These could be
for the protection of workers in the
unorganised sector or to protect
people from high interest rates
charged by moneylenders  in the
informal sector. Similarly, rules and
regulations are also required for
protecting the environment.
For example, moneylenders in the
informal sector that you read about
in Chapter 3 adopt various tricks to
bind the borrower: they could make
the producer sell the produce to them
at a low rate in return for a timely loan;
they could force a small farmer like
Swapna to sell her land to pay back
the loan. Similarly, many people who
work in the unorganised sector have
to work at a low wage and accept
conditions that are not fair and are
also often harmful to their health. To
prevent such exploitation, we
have talked of rules and regulations
for their protection. There are
organisations that have struggled
for long to ensure that these rules are
followed.
THE CONSUMER IN THE MARKETPLACE
Likewise, rules and regulations are
required for the protection of the
consumers in the marketplace.
Individual consumers often find
themselves in a weak position.
Whenever there is a complaint
regarding a good or service that had
been bought, the seller tries to shift
all the responsibility on to the buyer.
Their position usually is – “If you
didn’t like what you bought, please
go elsewhere”. As if the seller has no
responsibility once a sale is
completed! The consumer movement,
as we shall discuss later, is an effort
to change this situation.
Exploitation in the marketplace
happens in various ways. For
example, sometimes traders indulge
in unfair trade practices such as when
shopkeepers weigh less than what
they should or when traders add
charges that were not mentioned
before, or when adulterated/defective
goods are sold.
Markets do not work in a fair
manner when producers are few and
powerful whereas consumers
purchase in small amounts and are
scattered. This happens especially
when large companies are producing
these goods. These companies with
huge wealth, power and reach can
manipulate the market in various
ways. At times false information is
passed on through the media, and
other sources to attract consumers.
For example, a company for years
sold powder milk for babies all over
THEY PURPOSELY MADE IT
SO IT WOULD FALL APART
AFTER A FEW MONTHS SO
THAT I WILL BUY A NEW ONE!
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CHAPTER 5
The collage you see below contains
some news clippings of Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission
verdicts. Why did the people go to
these organisations in these cases?
These verdicts came about because
some people persisted and struggled
to get justice. In what ways were they
denied justice? More importantly,
what are the ways in which they can
exercise their rights as consumers to
get a fair deal from the sellers when
they felt they had been denied a just
treatment?
Rationalised 2023-24
We participate in the market both as
producers and consumers. As
producers of goods and services we
could be working in any of the sectors
discussed earlier such as agriculture,
industry, or services. Consumers
participate in the market when they
purchase goods and services that they
need. These are the final goods that
people as consumers use.
In the preceding chapters we
discussed the need for rules and
regulations or steps that would
promote development. These could be
for the protection of workers in the
unorganised sector or to protect
people from high interest rates
charged by moneylenders  in the
informal sector. Similarly, rules and
regulations are also required for
protecting the environment.
For example, moneylenders in the
informal sector that you read about
in Chapter 3 adopt various tricks to
bind the borrower: they could make
the producer sell the produce to them
at a low rate in return for a timely loan;
they could force a small farmer like
Swapna to sell her land to pay back
the loan. Similarly, many people who
work in the unorganised sector have
to work at a low wage and accept
conditions that are not fair and are
also often harmful to their health. To
prevent such exploitation, we
have talked of rules and regulations
for their protection. There are
organisations that have struggled
for long to ensure that these rules are
followed.
THE CONSUMER IN THE MARKETPLACE
Likewise, rules and regulations are
required for the protection of the
consumers in the marketplace.
Individual consumers often find
themselves in a weak position.
Whenever there is a complaint
regarding a good or service that had
been bought, the seller tries to shift
all the responsibility on to the buyer.
Their position usually is – “If you
didn’t like what you bought, please
go elsewhere”. As if the seller has no
responsibility once a sale is
completed! The consumer movement,
as we shall discuss later, is an effort
to change this situation.
Exploitation in the marketplace
happens in various ways. For
example, sometimes traders indulge
in unfair trade practices such as when
shopkeepers weigh less than what
they should or when traders add
charges that were not mentioned
before, or when adulterated/defective
goods are sold.
Markets do not work in a fair
manner when producers are few and
powerful whereas consumers
purchase in small amounts and are
scattered. This happens especially
when large companies are producing
these goods. These companies with
huge wealth, power and reach can
manipulate the market in various
ways. At times false information is
passed on through the media, and
other sources to attract consumers.
For example, a company for years
sold powder milk for babies all over
THEY PURPOSELY MADE IT
SO IT WOULD FALL APART
AFTER A FEW MONTHS SO
THAT I WILL BUY A NEW ONE!
Rationalised 2023-24
77 77 77 77 77 C C C C CONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER R R R R RIGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS
1. What are the various ways by which people may be exploited in the market?
2. Think of one example from your experience where you thought that there was some
‘cheating’ in the market. Discuss in the classroom.
3. What do you think should be the role of government to protect consumers?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
the world as the most scientific
product claiming this to be better
than mother’s milk. It took years of
struggle before the company was
forced to accept that it had been
making false claims. Similarly, a
long battle had to be fought with
court cases to make cigarette-
manufacturing companies accept that
their product could cause cancer.
Hence, there is a need for rules and
regulations to ensure protection for
consumers.
CONSUMER MOVEMENT
quality of goods and services on the
sellers.
In India, the consumer movement
as a ‘social force’ originated with the
necessity of protecting and promoting
the interests of consumers against
unethical and unfair trade practices.
Rampant food shortages, hoarding,
black marketing, adulteration of food
and edible oil gave birth to the
consumer movement in an organised
form in the 1960s. Till the 1970s,
consumer organisations were largely
engaged in writing articles and
holding exhibitions. They formed
consumer groups to look into the
malpractices in ration shops and
overcrowding in the road passenger
transport. More recently, India
witnessed an upsurge in the number
of consumer groups.
The consumer movement arose out
of dissatisfaction of the consumers
as many unfair practices were being
indulged in by the sellers. There was
no legal system available to
consumers to protect them from
exploitation in the marketplace. For
a long time, when a consumer was
not happy with a particular brand
product or shop, he or she generally
avoided buying that brand product,
or would stop purchasing from that
shop. It was presumed that it was
the responsibility of consumers to be
careful while buying a commodity
or service. It took many years for
organisations in India, and around
the world, to create awareness
amongst people. This has also
shifted the responsibility of ensuring
EVERYONE KNOWS
TOBACCO KILLS PEOPLE,
BUT WHO CAN SAY THAT
TOBACCO COMPANIES
SHOULD NOT BE FREE
TO SELL TOBACCO?
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CHAPTER 5
The collage you see below contains
some news clippings of Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission
verdicts. Why did the people go to
these organisations in these cases?
These verdicts came about because
some people persisted and struggled
to get justice. In what ways were they
denied justice? More importantly,
what are the ways in which they can
exercise their rights as consumers to
get a fair deal from the sellers when
they felt they had been denied a just
treatment?
Rationalised 2023-24
We participate in the market both as
producers and consumers. As
producers of goods and services we
could be working in any of the sectors
discussed earlier such as agriculture,
industry, or services. Consumers
participate in the market when they
purchase goods and services that they
need. These are the final goods that
people as consumers use.
In the preceding chapters we
discussed the need for rules and
regulations or steps that would
promote development. These could be
for the protection of workers in the
unorganised sector or to protect
people from high interest rates
charged by moneylenders  in the
informal sector. Similarly, rules and
regulations are also required for
protecting the environment.
For example, moneylenders in the
informal sector that you read about
in Chapter 3 adopt various tricks to
bind the borrower: they could make
the producer sell the produce to them
at a low rate in return for a timely loan;
they could force a small farmer like
Swapna to sell her land to pay back
the loan. Similarly, many people who
work in the unorganised sector have
to work at a low wage and accept
conditions that are not fair and are
also often harmful to their health. To
prevent such exploitation, we
have talked of rules and regulations
for their protection. There are
organisations that have struggled
for long to ensure that these rules are
followed.
THE CONSUMER IN THE MARKETPLACE
Likewise, rules and regulations are
required for the protection of the
consumers in the marketplace.
Individual consumers often find
themselves in a weak position.
Whenever there is a complaint
regarding a good or service that had
been bought, the seller tries to shift
all the responsibility on to the buyer.
Their position usually is – “If you
didn’t like what you bought, please
go elsewhere”. As if the seller has no
responsibility once a sale is
completed! The consumer movement,
as we shall discuss later, is an effort
to change this situation.
Exploitation in the marketplace
happens in various ways. For
example, sometimes traders indulge
in unfair trade practices such as when
shopkeepers weigh less than what
they should or when traders add
charges that were not mentioned
before, or when adulterated/defective
goods are sold.
Markets do not work in a fair
manner when producers are few and
powerful whereas consumers
purchase in small amounts and are
scattered. This happens especially
when large companies are producing
these goods. These companies with
huge wealth, power and reach can
manipulate the market in various
ways. At times false information is
passed on through the media, and
other sources to attract consumers.
For example, a company for years
sold powder milk for babies all over
THEY PURPOSELY MADE IT
SO IT WOULD FALL APART
AFTER A FEW MONTHS SO
THAT I WILL BUY A NEW ONE!
Rationalised 2023-24
77 77 77 77 77 C C C C CONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER R R R R RIGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS
1. What are the various ways by which people may be exploited in the market?
2. Think of one example from your experience where you thought that there was some
‘cheating’ in the market. Discuss in the classroom.
3. What do you think should be the role of government to protect consumers?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
the world as the most scientific
product claiming this to be better
than mother’s milk. It took years of
struggle before the company was
forced to accept that it had been
making false claims. Similarly, a
long battle had to be fought with
court cases to make cigarette-
manufacturing companies accept that
their product could cause cancer.
Hence, there is a need for rules and
regulations to ensure protection for
consumers.
CONSUMER MOVEMENT
quality of goods and services on the
sellers.
In India, the consumer movement
as a ‘social force’ originated with the
necessity of protecting and promoting
the interests of consumers against
unethical and unfair trade practices.
Rampant food shortages, hoarding,
black marketing, adulteration of food
and edible oil gave birth to the
consumer movement in an organised
form in the 1960s. Till the 1970s,
consumer organisations were largely
engaged in writing articles and
holding exhibitions. They formed
consumer groups to look into the
malpractices in ration shops and
overcrowding in the road passenger
transport. More recently, India
witnessed an upsurge in the number
of consumer groups.
The consumer movement arose out
of dissatisfaction of the consumers
as many unfair practices were being
indulged in by the sellers. There was
no legal system available to
consumers to protect them from
exploitation in the marketplace. For
a long time, when a consumer was
not happy with a particular brand
product or shop, he or she generally
avoided buying that brand product,
or would stop purchasing from that
shop. It was presumed that it was
the responsibility of consumers to be
careful while buying a commodity
or service. It took many years for
organisations in India, and around
the world, to create awareness
amongst people. This has also
shifted the responsibility of ensuring
EVERYONE KNOWS
TOBACCO KILLS PEOPLE,
BUT WHO CAN SAY THAT
TOBACCO COMPANIES
SHOULD NOT BE FREE
TO SELL TOBACCO?
Rationalised 2023-24
1. What could have been the steps taken by consumer groups?
2. There may be rules and regulations but they are often not followed. Why? Discuss.
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
Consumers International
In 1985 United Nations adopted
the UN Guidelines for Consumer
Protection. This was a tool for
nations to adopt measures to
protect consumers and for
consumer advocacy groups to
press their governments to do
so. At the international level, this
has become the foundation for
consumer movement. Today,
Consumers International has
become an umbrella body to
over 200 member organisations
from over 100 countries.
Because of all these efforts, the movement succeeded in
bringing pressure on business firms as well as government
to correct business conduct which may be unfair and against
the interests of consumers at large. A major step taken in
1986 by the Indian government was the enactment of the
Consumer Protection Act 1986, popularly known as COPRA.
You will learn more about COPRA later.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS CONSUMER RIGHTS
CHAPTER 5
The collage you see below contains
some news clippings of Consumer
Disputes Redressal Commission
verdicts. Why did the people go to
these organisations in these cases?
These verdicts came about because
some people persisted and struggled
to get justice. In what ways were they
denied justice? More importantly,
what are the ways in which they can
exercise their rights as consumers to
get a fair deal from the sellers when
they felt they had been denied a just
treatment?
Rationalised 2023-24
We participate in the market both as
producers and consumers. As
producers of goods and services we
could be working in any of the sectors
discussed earlier such as agriculture,
industry, or services. Consumers
participate in the market when they
purchase goods and services that they
need. These are the final goods that
people as consumers use.
In the preceding chapters we
discussed the need for rules and
regulations or steps that would
promote development. These could be
for the protection of workers in the
unorganised sector or to protect
people from high interest rates
charged by moneylenders  in the
informal sector. Similarly, rules and
regulations are also required for
protecting the environment.
For example, moneylenders in the
informal sector that you read about
in Chapter 3 adopt various tricks to
bind the borrower: they could make
the producer sell the produce to them
at a low rate in return for a timely loan;
they could force a small farmer like
Swapna to sell her land to pay back
the loan. Similarly, many people who
work in the unorganised sector have
to work at a low wage and accept
conditions that are not fair and are
also often harmful to their health. To
prevent such exploitation, we
have talked of rules and regulations
for their protection. There are
organisations that have struggled
for long to ensure that these rules are
followed.
THE CONSUMER IN THE MARKETPLACE
Likewise, rules and regulations are
required for the protection of the
consumers in the marketplace.
Individual consumers often find
themselves in a weak position.
Whenever there is a complaint
regarding a good or service that had
been bought, the seller tries to shift
all the responsibility on to the buyer.
Their position usually is – “If you
didn’t like what you bought, please
go elsewhere”. As if the seller has no
responsibility once a sale is
completed! The consumer movement,
as we shall discuss later, is an effort
to change this situation.
Exploitation in the marketplace
happens in various ways. For
example, sometimes traders indulge
in unfair trade practices such as when
shopkeepers weigh less than what
they should or when traders add
charges that were not mentioned
before, or when adulterated/defective
goods are sold.
Markets do not work in a fair
manner when producers are few and
powerful whereas consumers
purchase in small amounts and are
scattered. This happens especially
when large companies are producing
these goods. These companies with
huge wealth, power and reach can
manipulate the market in various
ways. At times false information is
passed on through the media, and
other sources to attract consumers.
For example, a company for years
sold powder milk for babies all over
THEY PURPOSELY MADE IT
SO IT WOULD FALL APART
AFTER A FEW MONTHS SO
THAT I WILL BUY A NEW ONE!
Rationalised 2023-24
77 77 77 77 77 C C C C CONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER R R R R RIGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS
1. What are the various ways by which people may be exploited in the market?
2. Think of one example from your experience where you thought that there was some
‘cheating’ in the market. Discuss in the classroom.
3. What do you think should be the role of government to protect consumers?
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
the world as the most scientific
product claiming this to be better
than mother’s milk. It took years of
struggle before the company was
forced to accept that it had been
making false claims. Similarly, a
long battle had to be fought with
court cases to make cigarette-
manufacturing companies accept that
their product could cause cancer.
Hence, there is a need for rules and
regulations to ensure protection for
consumers.
CONSUMER MOVEMENT
quality of goods and services on the
sellers.
In India, the consumer movement
as a ‘social force’ originated with the
necessity of protecting and promoting
the interests of consumers against
unethical and unfair trade practices.
Rampant food shortages, hoarding,
black marketing, adulteration of food
and edible oil gave birth to the
consumer movement in an organised
form in the 1960s. Till the 1970s,
consumer organisations were largely
engaged in writing articles and
holding exhibitions. They formed
consumer groups to look into the
malpractices in ration shops and
overcrowding in the road passenger
transport. More recently, India
witnessed an upsurge in the number
of consumer groups.
The consumer movement arose out
of dissatisfaction of the consumers
as many unfair practices were being
indulged in by the sellers. There was
no legal system available to
consumers to protect them from
exploitation in the marketplace. For
a long time, when a consumer was
not happy with a particular brand
product or shop, he or she generally
avoided buying that brand product,
or would stop purchasing from that
shop. It was presumed that it was
the responsibility of consumers to be
careful while buying a commodity
or service. It took many years for
organisations in India, and around
the world, to create awareness
amongst people. This has also
shifted the responsibility of ensuring
EVERYONE KNOWS
TOBACCO KILLS PEOPLE,
BUT WHO CAN SAY THAT
TOBACCO COMPANIES
SHOULD NOT BE FREE
TO SELL TOBACCO?
Rationalised 2023-24
1. What could have been the steps taken by consumer groups?
2. There may be rules and regulations but they are often not followed. Why? Discuss.
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
Consumers International
In 1985 United Nations adopted
the UN Guidelines for Consumer
Protection. This was a tool for
nations to adopt measures to
protect consumers and for
consumer advocacy groups to
press their governments to do
so. At the international level, this
has become the foundation for
consumer movement. Today,
Consumers International has
become an umbrella body to
over 200 member organisations
from over 100 countries.
Because of all these efforts, the movement succeeded in
bringing pressure on business firms as well as government
to correct business conduct which may be unfair and against
the interests of consumers at large. A major step taken in
1986 by the Indian government was the enactment of the
Consumer Protection Act 1986, popularly known as COPRA.
You will learn more about COPRA later.
Rationalised 2023-24
79 79 79 79 79 C C C C CONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER ONSUMER R R R R RIGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS IGHTS
SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RIGHT
Reji’s Suffering Reji’s Suffering Reji’s Suffering Reji’s Suffering Reji’s Suffering
CONSUMER RIGHTS
Reji’s suffering shows how a
hospital, due to negligence by the
doctors and staff in giving
anaesthesia, crippled a student for
life. While using many goods and
services, we as consumers, have the
right to be protected against the
marketing of goods and delivery of
services that are hazardous to life and
property. Producers need to strictly
follow the required safety rules and
regulations. There are many goods
and services that we purchase that
require special attention to safety. For
example, pressure cookers have a
safety valve which, if it is defective, can
cause a serious accident. The
manufacturers of the safety valve have
to ensure high quality. You also need
public or government action to see
that this quality is maintained.
However, we do find bad quality
products in the market because the
supervision of these rules is weak and
the consumer movement is also not
strong enough.
1. For the following (you can add to the list) products/services discuss what safety
rules should be observed by the producer?
(a) LPG cylinder (b) cinema theatre (c) circus (d) medicines (e) edible oil
(f) marriage pandal (g) a high-rise building.
2. Find out any case of accident or negligence from people around you, where you think
that the responsibility lay with the producer. Discuss.
LET’S WORK THESE OUT
Reji Mathew, a healthy boy studying in
Class IX, was admitted in a private clinic in
Kerala for removal of tonsils. An ENT
surgeon performed the tonsillectomy
operation under general anaesthesia. As a
result of improper anaesthesia Reji showed
symptoms of some brain abnormalities
because of which he was crippled for life.
His father filed a complaint in the State
Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
claiming compensation of Rs 5,00,000 for
medical negligence and deficiency, in
service. The State Commission, saying that
the evidence was not sufficient, dismissed
it. Reji’s father appealed again in the
National Consumer Disputes Redressal
Commission located
in New Delhi. The
National Commission
after looking into the
complaint, held the
hospital responsible
for medical negligence
and directed it to pay
the compensation.
Rationalised 2023-24
Read More
78 videos|503 docs|131 tests

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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Consumer Rights - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is meant by consumer rights?
Ans. Consumer rights refer to the set of rights that protect consumers from unfair practices and ensure their safety, satisfaction, and fair treatment in the market. These rights include the right to be informed, right to choose, right to safety, right to be heard, right to seek redressal, and right to consumer education.
2. How can consumers exercise their right to be informed?
Ans. Consumers can exercise their right to be informed by seeking complete and accurate information about the quality, quantity, price, ingredients, expiry date, etc., of the products or services they intend to buy. They can also research and compare different products or services, read product labels, and rely on reliable sources of information to make informed decisions.
3. What is the significance of the right to seek redressal for consumers?
Ans. The right to seek redressal is significant for consumers as it provides them with a mechanism to address grievances and seek compensation for any loss or damage caused by defective products or deficient services. Consumers can file complaints with consumer courts or consumer forums to resolve disputes and obtain a fair resolution.
4. What are the responsibilities of consumers towards consumer rights?
Ans. Consumers have certain responsibilities towards consumer rights, such as being aware of their rights and exercising them responsibly. They should make informed choices, avoid buying counterfeit or substandard products, report any unfair trade practices, and actively participate in consumer movements. Additionally, consumers should also be responsible for proper disposal of waste and contribute towards sustainable consumption.
5. How can consumer education contribute to the protection of consumer rights?
Ans. Consumer education plays a crucial role in protecting consumer rights. It empowers consumers with knowledge and awareness about their rights, responsibilities, and ways to make informed choices. Through consumer education, individuals learn about their legal rights, how to identify fraudulent practices, and how to seek redressal. It equips consumers to assert their rights effectively and promotes a fair and transparent market environment.
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