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E m e r g e n c y
D e f i n i t i o n :
E m e r g e n c y  p r o v i s i o n s  i n  I n d i a  r e f e r  t o
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  p r o v i s i o n s  t h a t  g r a n t
e x t e n s i v e  p o w e r s  t o  t h e  P r e s i d e n t  a n d  t h e
U n i o n  g o v e r n m e n t  i n  t i m e s  o f  e m e r g e n c y ,
t o  m a i n t a i n  t h e  u n i t y ,  i n t e g r i t y ,  a n d
s e c u r i t y  o f  t h e  n a t i o n .
T y p e s  o f  E m e r g e n c i e s :
N a t i o n a l  E m e r g e n c y  P r o v i s i o n s :
S t a t e  E m e r g e n c y  P r o v i s i o n s :
F i n a n c i a l  E m e r g e n c y  P r o v i s i o n s :
N a t i o n a l  E m e r g e n c y
P r e s i d e n t ' s  R u l e  ( S t a t e  E m e r g e n c y )
F i n a n c i a l  E m e r g e n c y
A r t i c l e  3 6 0
E f f e c t s  o f  F i n a n c i a l  E m e r g e n c y
A r t i c l e  3 6 0
G r o u n d s :
E f f e c t :
A r t i c l e  3 5 6
E f f e c t s  o f  S t a t e  E m e r g e n c y
P r e s i d e n t  c a n  i s s u e  d i r e c t i o n s  t o  t h e  s t a t e s
r e g a r d i n g  f i n a n c i a l  m a t t e r s
T h e  U n i o n  P a r l i a m e n t  a s s u m e s  c o n t r o l  o v e r  t h e
s t a t e ' s  f i n a n c i a l  s y s t e m
G o v e r n o r  t a k e s  o v e r  t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f  t h e  s t a t e
S t a t e  C a b i n e t  a n d  C h i e f  M i n i s t e r  l o s e  p o w e r
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  a s s u m e  a l l  o r  a n y  o f  t h e  f u n c t i o n s
o f  t h e  s t a t e  g o v e r n m e n t
S t a t e  L e g i s l a t i v e  A s s e m b l y  m a y  b e  d i s s o l v e d
P r e s i d e n t ' s  R u l e  ( G o v e r n o r ' s  R u l e )
P r e s i d e n t  n e e d s  a  r e p o r t  f r o m  G o v e r n o r  o r  o t h e r
s o u r c e s
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  d i s s o l v e  t h e  s t a t e  L e g i s l a t i v e
A s s e m b l y
D u r a t i o n :  6  m o n t h s  i n i t i a l l y ,  c a n  b e  e x t e n d e d  u p  t o  3
y e a r s  w i t h  P a r l i a m e n t ' s  a p p r o v a l
P r e s i d e n t ' s  R u l e  s h o u l d  b e  a p p r o v e d  b y  b o t h  h o u s e s
o f  P a r l i a m e n t  w i t h i n  2  m o n t h s
T h r e a t  t o  f i n a n c i a l  s t a b i l i t y  o f  I n d i a
U n i o n  P a r l i a m e n t  a s s u m e s  c o n t r o l  o v e r  s t a t e ' s
f i n a n c i a l  m a t t e r s
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  i s s u e  d i r e c t i o n s  t o  t h e  s t a t e s  o n
f i n a n c i a l  m a t t e r s
S t a t e ' s  f i n a n c i a l  a u t o n o m y  i s  s u s p e n d e d
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  m o d i f y / a l t e r  t h e  f u n c t i o n s  o f
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  a u t h o r i t i e s
E m e r g e n c y  P r o c l a m a t i o n  b y  t h e  P r e s i d e n t
P r e s i d e n t  n e e d s  t h e  w r i t t e n  a d v i c e  o f  t h e  C a b i n e t
P r o c l a m a t i o n  s h o u l d  b e  a p p r o v e d  b y  b o t h  h o u s e s  o f
P a r l i a m e n t  w i t h i n  2  m o n t h s
D u r a t i o n :  I n i t i a l l y  2  m o n t h s ,  c a n  b e  e x t e n d e d
i n d e f i n i t e l y  w i t h  P a r l i a m e n t ' s  a p p r o v a l
P o w e r  t o  a l t e r / s u s p e n d :
F i n a n c i a l  a u t o n o m y  o f  s t a t e s
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  i s s u e  d i r e c t i o n s  t o  s t a t e s  o n
m a t t e r s  r e l a t e d  t o  f i n a n c i a l  s t a b i l i t y
A r t i c l e  3 5 6
G r o u n d s :
E f f e c t :
A r t i c l e  3 5 2
G r o u n d s :
E f f e c t :
S t a t e  g o v e r n m e n t  d i s m i s s e d
G o v e r n o r  t a k e s  o v e r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
S t a t e  L e g i s l a t i v e  A s s e m b l y  m a y  b e  d i s s o l v e d
P r e s i d e n t ' s  R u l e  s h o u l d  n o t  c o n t i n u e  b e y o n d  t w o
y e a r s
C e n t r a l  g o v e r n m e n t  b e c o m e s  a l l - p o w e r f u l
S t a t e  g o v e r n m e n t s  w o r k  u n d e r  t h e  d i r e c t i o n s  o f  t h e
C e n t r e
F u n d a m e n t a l  R i g h t s  m a y  b e  s u s p e n d e d  o r  r e s t r i c t e d
F a i l u r e  o f  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  m a c h i n e r y  i n  a  s t a t e
W a r
E x t e r n a l  a g g r e s s i o n
A r m e d  r e b e l l i o n
A r t i c l e  3 5 2
E f f e c t s  o f  N a t i o n a l  E m e r g e n c y
C e n t r a l  g o v e r n m e n t  g a i n s  s u p r e m e  c o n t r o l
S u s p e n s i o n / r e s t r i c t i o n  o f  F u n d a m e n t a l  R i g h t s
T h e  P r e s i d e n t  c a n  i s s u e  e x e c u t i v e  o r d e r s
P a r l i a m e n t  c a n  m a k e  l a w s  o n  m a t t e r s  u n d e r  t h e
s t a t e  l i s t
T h e  u n i o n  e x e c u t i v e  e x e r c i s e s  p o w e r s  a n d  f u n c t i o n s
o f  s t a t e  g o v e r n m e n t s
T h e  P a r l i a m e n t  c a n  e x t e n d  i t s  t e n u r e  b e y o n d  5  y e a r s
E m e r g e n c y  P r o c l a m a t i o n  b y  t h e  P r e s i d e n t
P r e s i d e n t  n e e d s  t h e  w r i t t e n  a d v i c e  o f  t h e  C a b i n e t
P r o c l a m a t i o n  s h o u l d  b e  a p p r o v e d  b y  b o t h  h o u s e s  o f
P a r l i a m e n t  w i t h i n  1  m o n t h
D u r a t i o n :  6  m o n t h s  i n i t i a l l y ,  c a n  b e  e x t e n d e d
i n d e f i n i t e l y  w i t h  P a r l i a m e n t ' s  a p p r o v a l
P o w e r  t o  a l t e r / s u s p e n d :
F u n d a m e n t a l  R i g h t s  u n d e r  A r t i c l e  3 5 9
D i s t r i b u t i o n  o f  r e v e n u e s  b e t w e e n  C e n t r e  a n d  S t a t e s
P o w e r s  a n d  f u n c t i o n i n g  o f  s t a t e s
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FAQs on Mindmap: Emergency Provisions - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What are emergency provisions?
Emergency provisions are laws or measures put in place by the government to ensure the smooth functioning of the state during times of crisis or emergency. These provisions grant additional powers to the government to take necessary actions for the well-being and security of the country and its citizens.
2. What situations might trigger the activation of emergency provisions?
Emergency provisions are usually activated in situations such as natural disasters, armed conflicts, epidemics, or any other event that poses a threat to the security and stability of the nation. These provisions allow the government to take immediate actions to address the situation and protect the interests of the people.
3. What powers does the government have under emergency provisions?
Under emergency provisions, the government may have the power to suspend certain fundamental rights, impose restrictions on movement and assembly, control the media, regulate essential services, and even declare a state of emergency or martial law if the situation demands it. These powers are temporary and are exercised to restore normalcy and protect the public.
4. How long can emergency provisions remain in effect?
The duration of emergency provisions depends on the specific circumstances and the laws of the country. In some cases, emergency provisions may only be in effect for a short period, such as a few days or weeks, while in other cases, they may remain in effect for an extended period, potentially months or even years. It is essential for these provisions to be regularly reviewed and monitored to prevent any misuse of power.
5. What safeguards are in place to prevent the abuse of emergency provisions?
To prevent the abuse of emergency provisions, most democracies have checks and balances in place. These may include the requirement for the government to seek parliamentary approval or judicial oversight for the activation and continuation of emergency provisions. Additionally, the constitution and laws of the country may outline the specific limits and conditions under which emergency powers can be exercised, ensuring that they are not used arbitrarily or for personal gain.
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