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Functions of management Related: NCERT Textbook Chapter 9 - Financia...
Functions of Management
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.

Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”.

According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.

For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others.



1. Planning
It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.

2. Organizing
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:
Identification of activities.
Classification of grouping of activities.
Assignment of duties.
Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.

3. Staffing
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves:

Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).
Recruitment, Selection & Placement.
Training & Development.
Remuneration.
Performance Appraisal.
Promotions & Transfer.

4. Directing
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:
Supervision
Motivation
Leadership
Communication

5. Controlling
It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps:
Establishment of standard performance.
Measurement of actual performance.
Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
Corrective action.
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Functions of management Related: NCERT Textbook Chapter 9 - Financia...
Functions of Management

Introduction:
Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. These functions are crucial for the success of any organization, including financial management. In Class 12 Business Studies, Chapter 9 - Financial Management, the functions of management are discussed in relation to financial management. Let's delve into the details of each function:

1. Planning:
- Planning involves setting goals, objectives, and strategies for the organization.
- In financial management, planning includes preparing budgets, cash flow forecasts, and financial plans.
- It helps in determining the financial resources required and their allocation for various activities.

2. Organizing:
- Organizing involves arranging and structuring resources and activities to achieve organizational goals.
- In financial management, organizing includes establishing financial departments, creating reporting structures, and assigning responsibilities.
- It ensures that financial activities are streamlined and coordinated effectively.

3. Leading:
- Leading involves influencing and motivating employees to achieve organizational goals.
- In financial management, leading includes guiding and directing financial decision-making processes.
- It involves effective communication, delegation, and leadership skills to maximize financial performance.

4. Controlling:
- Controlling involves monitoring, evaluating, and regulating activities to ensure they align with planned objectives.
- In financial management, controlling includes financial analysis, performance measurement, and corrective actions.
- It helps in detecting deviations from financial plans and implementing necessary adjustments.

Relation to Financial Management:
- The functions of management are applicable to financial management as they provide a framework for effective financial decision-making.
- Planning in financial management involves setting financial goals, estimating financial requirements, and developing financial strategies.
- Organizing in financial management focuses on establishing financial departments, assigning roles, and ensuring coordination in financial activities.
- Leading in financial management entails influencing and motivating employees to achieve financial objectives.
- Controlling in financial management involves monitoring financial performance, analyzing financial statements, and taking corrective actions.

Conclusion:
The functions of management, including planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, are integral to financial management. These functions provide a systematic approach to financial decision-making, ensuring the efficient and effective utilization of financial resources. By understanding and implementing these functions, organizations can enhance their financial performance and achieve their goals.
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Functions of management Related: NCERT Textbook Chapter 9 - Financial Management, Class 12 Business Studies
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