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It's time to learn norwegian!
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How to learn norwegian
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Learn some norwegian 1
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Speak norwegian with faen helvete
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How to COUNT in NORWEGIAN Like a NORWEGIAN
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How to speak NORWEGIAN like a NORWEGIAN - Part Five
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Norwegian Listening Practice - At a Norwegian Bookstore
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Norwegian - Numbers - Counting
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Listening to a Norwegian Forecast
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About School Subjects in Norwegian
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Mr. Bach Interviewing Norwegian Students
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Lussekatter / Saffron Buns; Norwegian Christmas Traditions
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Learn Norwegian... Now!
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Norwegian Listening Practice - At a Norwegian Restaurant
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Ordering a Burger in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Discussing a Document in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Making Plans for the Day in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Reading a Norwegian Journal
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About Vacation Plans in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Reading Norwegian Job Postings
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Reporting a Lost Item in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - At the Hairdresser in Norway
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Norwegian Listening Practice - A Norwegian Business Presentation
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Making a Complaint in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Discussing Product Packaging in Norwegian
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Norwegian - "Skj" "Kj" "Rs" sounds
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Seeing a Movie in Norway
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Planning a Sightseeing Trip in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About a Photo in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About Medicines in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Discussing a New Design in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Asking about a Restaurant's Opening Hours in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking to a Supplier in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Renting a DVD in Norway
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Norwegian Directions
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Choosing a Drink in Norway
58 Views
Norwegian Listening Practice - Choosing a Cake in Norway
58 Views
Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking to a Supplier in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About Breakfast in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Preparing For a Norwegian Business Meeting
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Learning to speak Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Ordering a Pizza in Norwegian
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Norwegian Language - Most common Verbs
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Calling the Norwegian Doctor's Office
54 Views
Norwegian Listening Practice - Talking About Your Schedule in Norwegian
54 Views
Learn Norwegian Grammar 1
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Re: Norwegian sentences
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Discussing Survey Results in Norwegian
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How to speak Norwegian like a Norwegian part two
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Discussing a Sales Graph in Norwegian
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Getting Norwegian Directions
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Norwegian - Days of the Week and Months
48 Views
Norwegian Food
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Norwegians for beginners
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Learning Norwegian through Black Metal
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Norwegian Listening Practice - Reserving Tickets to a Play in Norwegian
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Norwegian lesson part 1
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How to speak Norwegian like a Norwegian part one
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Skype suggestion - Norwegian Music
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Trying to speak Norwegian
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Questions View All
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The colour of the Norwegians house is :a)Yellowb)Whitec)Blued)RedCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
3 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The colour of the Norwegians house is :a)Yellowb)Whitec)Blued)RedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.Which of the following is not true ?a)Milk is drunk in the red houseb)Italian lives in the blue housec)The Spaniard lives in a corner housed)The Italian lives next to the SpaniardCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Which colours make up the Norwegian flag?a)Lime, green and pinkb)Yellow and bluec)Red, white and blued)Green, white and magentaCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
He is a Norwegian chess prodigy who became a grandmaster at the age of 13. He defeated world champion Viswanathan Anand to claim the title. Who is this famous young man?a)Bobby Fischerb)Magnus Carilsenc)Vladimir Kramnikd)Sergey KarjakinCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
A small radiation leak from the komsomolets"soviet nuclear submarine that sank 30 years ago in 1989 has been found in which of the following sea?a)North seab)Black seac)Norwegian sead)Bering seaCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Name the Western Naval Command warship that provides the assistance to MV Vela, a Norwegian owned ship in Gulf of Aden.a)INS Ranab)INS Beasc)INS Tegd)INS ShivalikCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
India’s first-ever FDI in fertiliser sector deal was signed between Yara International, a Norwegian chemical company and which company from India?a)Tata Chemicals Ltdb)Agri Tech Ltdc)Teesta Chemicals Ltdd)Khaitan Chemicals Ltde)Gagan Gases LtdCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
With reference to the Abel Prize, consider the following statements:1. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has awarded the Abel prize for the year 2022 to Dennis Parnell Sullivan.2. The Abel Prize is a prize awarded annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?a)1 onlyb)2 onlyc)Both 1 and 2d)Neither 1 nor 2Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
In spite of discovering new sources of oil exploration in the Canadian oil sands and along the Norwegian coast, OPEC estimates oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have been in the pasta)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenb)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to set exploration targets more conservatively than they werec)oil companies to conserve margins and to set exploration targets more conservatively than they haved)that oil companies conserve margins, set exploration targets more conservatively than they have beene)that oil companies, so that they conserve margins, will be more conservative than they have been in setting of exploration targetsCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
In spite of discovering new sources of oil exploration in the Canadian oil sands and along the Norwegian coast, OPEC estimatesoil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenin the pasta)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenb)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to set exploration targets more conservatively than they werec)oil companies to conserve margins and to set exploration targets more conservatively than they haved)that oil companies conserve margins, set exploration targets more conservatively than they have beene)that oil companies, so that they conserve margins, will be more conservative than they have been in setting of exploration targetsCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.Which of the following statements is incorrect?a)Unlike the Latin alphabet, which is an essentially utilitarian script, the runes are symbols of some of the most powerful forces in the cosmosb)The word “rune” and its meaning was derived from the runic alphabet.c)Runic writing was probably first used in southern Europe and was carried north by Germanic tribes.d)The first runic alphabets date back to the 1st century CE.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Instructions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.Which of the following cannot be reasonably inferred with regard to the beliefs of the Proto-Germanic people?a)Odin came upon the runes after going through a lot of torment.b)The cosmological power represented by a rune was invoked by writing it.c)Proto-German Gods were modeled on humans.d)The name of a rune was almost always the first sound of a God’s nameCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.The word “pantheon” in the passage refers toa)All the gods collectively of a religionb)A temple of all the godsc)A monument or building commemorating a nations dead heroesd)A domed circular temple at Rome, erected a.d. 120 –124 by HadrianCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?a. Runic script was most likely derived from Old Italic script.b. Runes were not used so much as a simple writing system, but rather as magical signs to be used for charms.c. In the Proto-Germanic period, the god Tiwaz was associated with war, victory, marriage and the diurnal sky.d. The knowledge of the meanings attributed to the runes of the Younger Futhark is derived from the three Rune poems.a)i and iiib)All the abovec)ii and ivd)i, ii and ivCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.What is the central idea of the passage?a)Simply watching people in contrived situations has lost its novelty edgeb)The global market has embarked on the hunt for original formatsc)Unlike other broadcasters, BBC isnt solely motivated by profitsd)Britain is no more the sole inventor of the reality shows running globallyCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following cannot be concluded from the passage?a)Britain is an undefeated champion when it comes to churning out unscripted programmes.b)In 2004, the aggressiveness of production companies increased proportionately to the stinginess of the broadcast companies.c)The production companies have converted the partially scripted shows into completely scripted shows in the name of formats.d)Broadcasters producing their own programmes pose a threat to the independents.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following is correct?a)Reality TV shows lack creativity and innovationb)BBC hardly banks on the funds generated by the license feesc)There lies a trade-off between Britain and Hollywood in terms of television shows/seriesd)BBC channel will be pruned in order to balance its budgetCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following is not true about the production companies of reality shows, as per this passage?a)Soft-scripted shows and documentaries are sold by the production companies in the name of formats to other companies.b)Perturbed by British broadcasters, production companies moved to foreign broadcasters.c)Production companies having branches in other countries, experiment with new and old tv shows.d)By selling the formats of their shows, the production companies are formulating new brands.Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The colour of the Norwegians house is :a)Yellowb)Whitec)Blued)RedCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The colour of the Norwegians house is :a)Yellowb)Whitec)Blued)RedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q. The Norwegian drinks :a)Milkb)Cocoac)Tead)Fruit juiceCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.Milk is drunk by :a)Norwegianb)Englishmanc)Italiand)None of themCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colour. Each person has a different favourite drink. The following addition information is also known :A. The Englishman lives in the red house.B. The Italian drinks tea.C. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.D. In the second house from the right they drink milk.E. The Norweigan lives adjacent to the blue house.F. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice.G. Tea is drunk in the blue house.H. The white house is to the right of the red house.I. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.Q.Which of the following is not true ?a)Milk is drunk in the red houseb)Italian lives in the blue housec)The Spaniard lives in a corner housed)The Italian lives next to the SpaniardCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
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Which colours make up the Norwegian flag?a)Lime, green and pinkb)Yellow and bluec)Red, white and blued)Green, white and magentaCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
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He is a Norwegian chess prodigy who became a grandmaster at the age of 13. He defeated world champion Viswanathan Anand to claim the title. Who is this famous young man?a)Bobby Fischerb)Magnus Carilsenc)Vladimir Kramnikd)Sergey KarjakinCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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A small radiation leak from the komsomolets"soviet nuclear submarine that sank 30 years ago in 1989 has been found in which of the following sea?a)North seab)Black seac)Norwegian sead)Bering seaCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
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Name the Western Naval Command warship that provides the assistance to MV Vela, a Norwegian owned ship in Gulf of Aden.a)INS Ranab)INS Beasc)INS Tegd)INS ShivalikCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
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India’s first-ever FDI in fertiliser sector deal was signed between Yara International, a Norwegian chemical company and which company from India?a)Tata Chemicals Ltdb)Agri Tech Ltdc)Teesta Chemicals Ltdd)Khaitan Chemicals Ltde)Gagan Gases LtdCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
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With reference to the Abel Prize, consider the following statements:1. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has awarded the Abel prize for the year 2022 to Dennis Parnell Sullivan.2. The Abel Prize is a prize awarded annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?a)1 onlyb)2 onlyc)Both 1 and 2d)Neither 1 nor 2Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
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In spite of discovering new sources of oil exploration in the Canadian oil sands and along the Norwegian coast, OPEC estimates oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have been in the pasta)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenb)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to set exploration targets more conservatively than they werec)oil companies to conserve margins and to set exploration targets more conservatively than they haved)that oil companies conserve margins, set exploration targets more conservatively than they have beene)that oil companies, so that they conserve margins, will be more conservative than they have been in setting of exploration targetsCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
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In spite of discovering new sources of oil exploration in the Canadian oil sands and along the Norwegian coast, OPEC estimatesoil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenin the pasta)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to be more conservative in setting exploration targets than they have beenb)oil companies, in order to conserve margins, to set exploration targets more conservatively than they werec)oil companies to conserve margins and to set exploration targets more conservatively than they haved)that oil companies conserve margins, set exploration targets more conservatively than they have beene)that oil companies, so that they conserve margins, will be more conservative than they have been in setting of exploration targetsCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
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DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.Which of the following statements is incorrect?a)Unlike the Latin alphabet, which is an essentially utilitarian script, the runes are symbols of some of the most powerful forces in the cosmosb)The word “rune” and its meaning was derived from the runic alphabet.c)Runic writing was probably first used in southern Europe and was carried north by Germanic tribes.d)The first runic alphabets date back to the 1st century CE.Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?
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Instructions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.Which of the following cannot be reasonably inferred with regard to the beliefs of the Proto-Germanic people?a)Odin came upon the runes after going through a lot of torment.b)The cosmological power represented by a rune was invoked by writing it.c)Proto-German Gods were modeled on humans.d)The name of a rune was almost always the first sound of a God’s nameCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
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DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q.The word “pantheon” in the passage refers toa)All the gods collectively of a religionb)A temple of all the godsc)A monument or building commemorating a nations dead heroesd)A domed circular temple at Rome, erected a.d. 120 –124 by HadrianCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
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DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.The first systems of writing developed and used by the Germanic peoples were runic alphabets. The runes functioned as letters, but they were much more than just letters in the sense in which we today understand the term. Each rune was an ideographic or pictographic symbol of some cosmological principle or power, and to write a rune was to invoke and direct the force for which it stood. Indeed, in every Germanic language, the word “rune” (from Proto-Germanic *runo) means both “letter” and “secret” or “mystery,” and its original meaning, which likely predated the adoption of the runic alphabet, may have been simply “(hushed) message.”Each rune had a name that hinted at the philosophical and magical significance of its visual form and the sound for which it stands, which was almost always the first sound of the rune’s name. For example, the T-rune, called *Tiwaz in the Proto-Germanic language, is named after the god Tiwaz (known as Tyr in the Viking Age). Tiwaz was perceived to dwell within the daytime sky, and, accordingly, the visual form of the T-rune is an arrow pointed upward (which surely also hints at the god’s martial role). The T-rune was often carved as a standalone ideograph, apart from the writing of any particular word, as part of spells cast to ensure victory in battle.The runic alphabets are called “futharks after the first six runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raidho, Kaunan), in much the same way that the word “alphabet” comes from the names of the first two Hebrew letters (Aleph, Beth). There are three principal futharks: the 24-character Elder Futhark, the first fully-formed runic alphabet, whose development had begun by the first century CE and had been completed before the year 400; the 16-character Younger Futhark, which began to diverge from the Elder Futhark around the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 750 CE) and eventually replaced that older alphabet in Scandinavia; and the 33-character Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, which gradually altered and added to the Elder Futhark in England. On some inscriptions, the twenty-four runes of the Elder Futhark were divided into three ættir (Old Norse, “families”) of eight runes each, but the significance of this division is unfortunately unknown. Runes were traditionally carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, or some similarly hard surface rather than drawn with ink and pen on parchment.This explains their sharp, angular form, which was well-suited to the medium. Much of our current knowledge of the meanings the ancient Germanic peoples attributed to the runes comes from the three “Rune Poems,” documents from Iceland, Norway, and England that provide a short stanza about each rune in their respective futharks (the Younger Futhark is treated in the Icelandic and Norwegian Rune Poems, while the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc is discussed in the Old English Rune Poem). While runologists argue over many of the details of the historical origins of runic writing, there is widespread agreement on a general outline. The runes are presumed to have been derived from one of the many Old Italic alphabets in use among the Mediterranean peoples of the first century CE, who lived to the south of the Germanic tribes. Earlier Germanic sacred symbols, such as those preserved in northern European petroglyphs, were also likely influential in the development of the script. The earliest possibly runic inscription is found on the Meldorf brooch, which was manufactured in the north of modern-day Germany around 50 CE. The inscription is highly ambiguous, however, and scholars are divided over whether its letters are runic or Roman. The earliest unambiguous runic inscriptions are found on the Vimose comb from Vimose, Denmark and the Øvre Stabu spearhead from southern Norway, both of which date to approximately 160 CE. The earliest known carving of the entire futhark, in order, is that on the Kylver stone from Gotland, Sweden, which dates to roughly 400 CE. The transmission of writing from southern Europe to northern Europe likely took place via Germanic warbands, the dominant northern European military institution of the period, who would have encountered Italic writing firsthand during campaigns amongst their southerly neighbors. This hypothesis is supported by the association that runes have always had with the god Odin, who, in the Proto-Germanic period, under his original name *Woðanaz, was the divine model of the human warband leader and the invisible patron of the warband’s activities. The Roman historian Tacitus tells us that Odin (“Mercury” in the interpretatio romana) was already established as the dominant god in the pantheons of many of the Germanic tribes by the first century.From the perspective of the ancient Germanic peoples themselves, however, the runes came from no source as mundane as an Old Italic alphabet. The runes were never “invented,” but are instead eternal, pre-existent forces that Odin himself discovered by undergoing a tremendous ordeal.Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?a. Runic script was most likely derived from Old Italic script.b. Runes were not used so much as a simple writing system, but rather as magical signs to be used for charms.c. In the Proto-Germanic period, the god Tiwaz was associated with war, victory, marriage and the diurnal sky.d. The knowledge of the meanings attributed to the runes of the Younger Futhark is derived from the three Rune poems.a)i and iiib)All the abovec)ii and ivd)i, ii and ivCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
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The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.What is the central idea of the passage?a)Simply watching people in contrived situations has lost its novelty edgeb)The global market has embarked on the hunt for original formatsc)Unlike other broadcasters, BBC isnt solely motivated by profitsd)Britain is no more the sole inventor of the reality shows running globallyCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
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The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following cannot be concluded from the passage?a)Britain is an undefeated champion when it comes to churning out unscripted programmes.b)In 2004, the aggressiveness of production companies increased proportionately to the stinginess of the broadcast companies.c)The production companies have converted the partially scripted shows into completely scripted shows in the name of formats.d)Broadcasters producing their own programmes pose a threat to the independents.Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following is correct?a)Reality TV shows lack creativity and innovationb)BBC hardly banks on the funds generated by the license feesc)There lies a trade-off between Britain and Hollywood in terms of television shows/seriesd)BBC channel will be pruned in order to balance its budgetCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.Not many Britons watch Who Wants to be a Millionaire? these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While Millionaire is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote dIvoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.Hollywood may create the worlds best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmesquiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. Britains Got Talent, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including Chinas Got Talent and Das Supertalent. There are 22 different versions of Wife Swap and 32 of Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formatsmore than any other country.London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britainor even if it performs unusually well in its time slotphones start ringing inproduction companies offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.Or they may buy a bible that tells them how to clone it for themselves.The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK, says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes Got Talent, Idol and X Factor.Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers group, and Oliver Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent 1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only 1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from 342m to 590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that companys profits now come from intellectual propertythat is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on televisionowning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovationputting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.Yet the countrys status as the worlds pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came Crunch, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hardnot a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britains biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.Meanwhile commissioners tastes are changing. Programmes like Wife Swap, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like One Born Every Minute and 24 Hours in AE. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as soft-scripted shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. Made in Chelsea and The Only Way is Essex blaze that peculiar trail.These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedias new talent show, Hidden Stars, was created by the firms Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched marketthe crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Groups One Born Every Minute, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like Kings Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.Q.Which of the following is not true about the production companies of reality shows, as per this passage?a)Soft-scripted shows and documentaries are sold by the production companies in the name of formats to other companies.b)Perturbed by British broadcasters, production companies moved to foreign broadcasters.c)Production companies having branches in other countries, experiment with new and old tv shows.d)By selling the formats of their shows, the production companies are formulating new brands.Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?
1 answers