Hand axe & cleaver industries
Pahalgam, Belan valley (U.P),
(600,000 – 60,000 BC)
Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav
Tools made on flakes
Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri
(150,000 – 40,000 BC)
hills of upper sind
Tools made on flakes & blades
Rajasthan, Parts of Belan & Ganga
(45,000 – 10,000 BC)
Parallel sided blades of chert,
Bagor (Raj), Langhnaj (Guj), Sarai
(10,000 – 7000 BC)
chalcedony, jasper, agate
Nahar Rai, Chaopani Mando, Mahdaha,
Damdama (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh.
Mehrgarh (Pak) Gufkral & Burzahom
(8000 BC – 2000 BC)
(J&K), Mahgara, Chopani Mando,
Kodihwa in Belan Valley (U.P.) Chirand
Distinct painted pottery
Cultures: Ahar culture (oldest), Kayatha,
Fire worship widespread.
Malwa culture, Salvada culture, ,
Prabhas culture, Rangpur culture &
Jorwe culture (newest).
Copper Hoard Culture
Harpoons, Antennae swords,
Pottery with bright red slip &
All over gangetic plain with same
(Ochre coloured pottery)
painted in black.
regions as that of copper hoard culture.
•Ahar people (Aravalli region) - distinctive black & red ware decorated with white designs.
•Prabhas & Rangpur wares have a glossy suface due to which they are called lusturous red ware.
•Jorwe culture (Maharashtra) - painted black on red but has a matt surface treated with a wash.
Select Harrapan Cities (Chalcolithic Age)
Great granary, 40 % of total seals found here; Seals usually made of steatite
depicting elephant, bull, unicorn, rhinoceros; figurines - torso
“Mound of the dead”; largest of all cities; Great Bath; granary; city was
flooded occasionally, figurines of yogi, bronze dancing girl, seal bearing
[S.R. Rao]. Earliest cultivation of rice; Fire altars
[A. Ghosh]. Fire Altars showing cult sacrifice;
[R.S. Bisht] Fire Altars;
Evidences of cotton;
Fig: Indus Valley Civilisation
Indian Religious Books
Divided into sarga, pratisarga, manvantantar, vamsa (genealogical list of kings) &
vamsanucharita. 18 main puranas & 18 subsidiary puranas.
Meaning “knowledge”. Rigveda (hymns), Yajurveda (sacrificial formulae), Atharvaveda
(magical charms & spell), Samveda. Vedas are called aparusheya (not created by man) &
About 200 in number. Deal with philosophy. Oldest & most important are Chhandogya &
Brihadranyaka. Other important are Kathak, Isa, Mundaka, Prasna etc. Do not believe in
Talks about vedic hymns, their application, stories of their origin. Each Brahmana is
associated with one of the four VedasAitareya brahmana is associated with Rig Veda &
Satapatha Brahmana with Yajur veda.
Meaning ‘the forest books’. They discuss philosophical meditation & sacrifice.
Evolved for proper understanding of the Vedas. Six in all: Siksha (phonetics), Kalpa
(rituals), Vyakarna, Nirukta (Etymology) Chhanda (metrics) & Jyotisha.
Advaita Vedanta of Adi Sankara.
Ancient Books & Authors
Mudrakshasha (Chandragupta Maurya defeating the Nandas);
Malavikagnimitram (Pushyamitra Sunga)
Gudavaho (Yasovarman of Kannauj)
Vikramanakadevacharita (Chalukya king Vikramaditya)
Dvayashraya Mahakavya; Sapta Sadhana
Meghaduta; Raghuvamsa; Kumarasambhava; Vikramorvasiyam
Uttarama-Charita; Malati Madhava
Panchsiddhantika; Suryasiddhanta; Brihatsamhita
Karpuramanjari; Bala Ramayana; Bala Bharata; Kavyamimamsa;
Bhuvana Kosha; Haravilasa
Adinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)
Shantinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)
Parsvanathacharita (Jaina Narrative)
Siddhanta Shiromani [4 parts – Lilavati, Bijaganita, Grahaganita &
Gola (on Astronomy)]
Rajmariganka (On Astronomy)
Chikitsakalika or Yogamala
Nitishastra (On Polity)
Nitisara (On Polity)
Sushruta Samhita (encyclopedia on surgery)
Charaka Samhita (Teachings of Atreya)
Buddhacharita, Vajrasuchi, Suandarananda
Sanskrit. Says that a dam on the sudarshana lake
was constructed by Pushyagupta a governor of
Sanskrit. Composed by Harisena
Mentions Harsha defeat by Pulakeshin II.
Composed by Ravikriti Vishnuvardan son of King.
Most famous Pratihara king.
Proves Rig Veda to be
Indra, Varuna, Mitra, two Nasatyas mentioned
more than 1400 BC old.
Achievements of the king
Achievements of the king.
Mehrauli Iron Pillar
Composed by Vatsabhatti.
Bhitari Stone pillar
Rajendra I (Chola)
His conquests (annexed whole of SriLanka)
Chola village assemblies
Near Vidisa (MP). Mentions Heliodorus the ambassador of king Antialcidas
called himself Bhagvata & erected garudadhvaja in his honour of Vasudev.
I Buddhist Council
500 BC at
Record the Buddha's sayings (sutra) and codify
monastic rules (vinaya). Rajgaha is today’s
II Buddhist Council
383 BC at
The conservative schools insisted on monastic
rules (vinaya). The secessionist Mahasangikas
argued for more relaxed monastic
rules.Rejection of the Mahasanghikas
III Buddhist Council
Purpose was to reconcile the different schools of
Buddhism. Presided by Moggaliputta Tissa
IV Buddhist Council
Division into Hinayana & Mahayana. Theravada
Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of
this council, and it is sometimes called the
"council of heretical monks".
V Buddhist Council
recite all the teachings of the Buddha and
examine them in minute detail to see if any of
them had been altered
VI Buddhist Council
P.M. U Nu
Dynasties of Ancient Northern India
Founded after overthrowing the Brihadrathas. He also annexed
Conquered Lichhavis of Vaisali. Also defeated Prasenajit of
Kosala. Succeded by Udayani who founded Pataliputra.
People elected Sisunga as Udayani & his 3 successors were
Barber but a great military genius. Defeated many dynasties.
Defeated Persian King Darius III & marched to India through
Khyber pass. King of Taxila offered help.
Educated by Chanakya at Taxila. ‘Parisistha Parvam’ a jain text
describes that he defeated the Nanda king & became ruler of
Magadha empire. Defeated Greek, Selecus who had succeded
Alexander in the eastern part. Selecus sent Megasthenes to his
He appointed his two sons, Sumana at Taxila & Ashoka at Ujjain.
Ptolemy Philadelphous of Egypt sent Dionysius to his court.
Known as devanampiya & piyadasi. Edicts were in Greek &
Aramaic in Afghanistan, Prakrit language & Kharosthi script in
Pakistan. Prakrit language & Brahmi script in other areas. Rock
Edict XIII (Kalinga war) Bhabru Edict (Buddhism as his religion)
VII (all sects desire self control & purity) XII (equal respect to all
religion) II (Dhamma – Common code of conduct). Succeded by 6
Mauryan kings from Dasaratha to Brihadratha.
Army chief of Maurya king Brihadratha killed him while he was
reviewing the army. Succeded by Agnimitra, Jethmitra &
Vasumitra. Last king was Devabhuiti.
Hathigumpha inscription on Udaigiri hills near Bhubneshwar
refers his achievement till 13th year. Ruled Kalinga.
Satvahanas also known as Andhras. Succeeded by Krishna,
Satkarni I, Satakarni II, Gautamiputra Satakarni, Pulmavi II, Sri
Ruled in Pakistan region. Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena.
Milindapanho is related to their conversation.
Sakas also known as Scythians were driven out of their original
home land by Yueh Chi who later came to be known as Kushanas.
Nahapana ruled in western India.
Junagarh Rock Inscription talks about him. He undertook the
repairs of the Sudarsan dam built by Pushyagupta, governor of
Chandra Gupta Maurya. Ujjaynii was capital. Dynasty came to an
end with the last king being defeated by Chandragupta II in 390
Also called Kujula Kadphises. Kadphises I was succeded by his
son Wema Kadphises or Kadphises II – devotee of Shiva.
Succeded Kadphises II. Capital of his vast empire was Purushapur
73 - 101 AD
or modern Peshawar.
The Guptas & Later Period
Sri Gupta was the first Gupta king followed by Ghatotkacha.
AD 320 AD
Chadragupta I was Ghatotkacha’s son.
Son of Chandragupta I. Undertook south India campaign.
Meghavarna, King of Srilanka sent an embassy to his court to
build a monastery at Bodh Gaya.
Son of Samudtragupta & Duttadevi. Married his daughter
Prabhavatigupta to Rudrasena II of Vataka dynasty. Defeated
Sakas & took the title of Vikramaditya.
Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta (Inflicted a crushing defeat on the
Hunas; repair of the dam on Sudarsana lake built by chandragupta
maurya & earlier repared by Rudradaman I.
From the decline of Gupta & the rise of Harsha there flourished four major kingdoms
in north India: Guptas of Magadha, Maukharis (around Kanauj), Maitrakas
(Saurashtra – Vallabhi as capital), Pushyabhutis of Thaneshwar (Uttaranchal).
Son of Prabhakarvardhana of Pushyabhuti of Thaneshwar. Brother
606 - 647 AD
of Rajyavardhana & Rajyasri (sister married to Maukhari king,
Grahavarman of Kanauj, later killed by Sasanka of Gauda). Also
known as Siladitya. Gauda was later divided between him &
Bhaskarvarman, the king of Kamarupa.
Vatakas (Deccan) - Vindhyasakti*, *Pravarasena*. Replaced by Chalukyas.
Rashtrakutas - Dantidurga I*. They succeded Chalukyas of Badami.
Western Gangas (Mysore) - Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja*
Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi – Mayursarman*, *Kakusthavarman*
Pallavas of Kanchipuram - Simhavishnu, Mahendravarman , *Narsimhavarman*
Later Kanauj was ruled by Yashovarman (discussed in Vakpati’s Gaudavaho)
After Nagabhatta I came Vatsaraja who defeated Dharmapala but
was in turn defeated by Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. Dhramapala
taking advantage installed his nominee chakrayudha at Kanauj
Defeated Chakrayudha & captured Kanuaj & defeated
Dharmapala. Ramabhadra succeded him
Succeded his father Ramabhadra. Defeated Rashtrakuta king
Krishna II. He was devotee of Vishnu & took the title of
Adivaraha. He was followed by great ruler Mahendrapala I
Elected by people to end Matsyanyaya (internal disorder). Next
was Dharmapala who installed Chakrayudha at Kanauj but was
defeated by Dhruva.
Most mighty pala king.
Dantidurga was succeded by his uncle Krishna I (built Kailasha)
Defeated both the Pratihara king Vatsaraja & Pala Dharampala.
Was succeded by Govinda III & later Amoghavarsha I. Later
came Indra III (defeated pratihara Mahipala I) & Krishna III
Ruled by single dynasty from the time of Mahabharata upto middle
7th century till Bhaskaravarma (ally of Harsha). Dynasty came to
an end after his death.
Administrative Units & Their Ancient Names
Vishaya or Bhoga
Kottams or Vallandadu
Jargon of Ancient Period
Head of district Administration
Chief of a Guild
Chief of artisans
Governor of Bhukti
Unit of currency
Initiation into education
Unit of currency
Revenue officer in the Mauryan period.
Term used for coin
Land measurement & fixing land revenue
Assembly of few select ones
Most important post created by Asoka.