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Pre-Harappan Period

 

 

Lower Paleolithic

 

Hand axe & cleaver industries

Pahalgam, Belan valley (U.P),

 

 

 

(600,000 – 60,000 BC)

 

 

Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav

 

 

 

Middle Paleolithic

 

Tools made on flakes

Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri

 

 

 

(150,000 – 40,000 BC)

 

 

hills of upper sind

 

 

 

Upper Paleolithic

 

Tools made on flakes & blades

Rajasthan, Parts of Belan & Ganga

 

 

 

(45,000 – 10,000 BC)

 

 

Valley (U.P).

 

 

 

Mesolithic/ Microlithic

 

Parallel sided blades of chert,

Bagor (Raj), Langhnaj (Guj), Sarai

 

 

 

(10,000 – 7000 BC)

 

chalcedony, jasper, agate

Nahar Rai, Chaopani Mando, Mahdaha,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Damdama (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh.

 

 

 

Neolithic

 

Earthern pots

Mehrgarh (Pak) Gufkral & Burzahom

 

 

 

(8000 BC – 2000 BC)

 

 

(J&K), Mahgara, Chopani Mando,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kodihwa in Belan Valley (U.P.) Chirand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Bihar).

 

 

 

Chalcolithic

 

Distinct painted pottery

Cultures: Ahar culture (oldest), Kayatha,

 

 

 

(3000-900 B.C.)

 

Fire worship widespread.

Malwa culture, Salvada culture, ,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prabhas culture, Rangpur culture &

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jorwe culture (newest).

 

 

 

Copper Hoard Culture

 

Harpoons, Antennae swords,

Gungeria (M.P-largest)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthromorphs

 

 

 

 

OCP Culture

 

Pottery with bright red slip &

All over gangetic plain with same

 

 

 

(Ochre coloured pottery)

 

painted in black.

regions as that of copper hoard culture.

 

 

 

•Ahar people (Aravalli region) - distinctive black & red ware decorated with white designs.

 

 

 

•Prabhas & Rangpur wares have a glossy suface due to which they are called lusturous red ware.

 


 

•Jorwe culture (Maharashtra) - painted black on red but has a matt surface treated with a wash.

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Select Harrapan Cities (Chalcolithic Age)

 

1.

 

Harappa

 

Great granary, 40 % of total seals found here; Seals usually made of steatite

 

 

 

 

[Dayaram Sahni]

 

depicting elephant, bull, unicorn, rhinoceros; figurines - torso

 

2.

 

Mohenjodaro

 

“Mound of the dead”; largest of all cities; Great Bath; granary; city was

 

 

 

 

[R.D Banerjee]

 

flooded occasionally, figurines of yogi, bronze dancing girl, seal bearing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pashupati.

 

 

3.

 

Lothal

 

[S.R. Rao]. Earliest cultivation of rice; Fire altars

 

 

 

4.

 

Kalibangan

 

[A. Ghosh]. Fire Altars showing cult sacrifice;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Dholavira,

 

[R.S. Bisht]

 

 

6.

 

Banwali

 

[R.S. Bisht] Fire Altars;

 

 

7.

 

Mehrgarh

 

Evidences of cotton;

 

 

 

1. Ancient Indian History (Quick Revision) UPSC Notes | EduRevFig: Indus Valley Civilisation

 

 

                                       Indian Religious Books

Puranas

Divided into sarga, pratisarga, manvantantar, vamsa (genealogical list of kings) &

 

vamsanucharita. 18 main puranas & 18 subsidiary puranas.

Vedas

Meaning “knowledge”. Rigveda (hymns), Yajurveda (sacrificial formulae), Atharvaveda

 

(magical charms & spell), Samveda. Vedas are called aparusheya (not created by man) &

 

nity

Upanishads

About 200 in number. Deal with philosophy. Oldest & most important are Chhandogya &

 

Brihadranyaka. Other important are Kathak, Isa, Mundaka, Prasna etc. Do not believe in

 

sacrificial ceremonies.

Brahmanas

Talks about vedic hymns, their application, stories of their origin. Each Brahmana is

 

associated with one of the four VedasAitareya brahmana is associated with Rig Veda &

 

Satapatha Brahmana with Yajur veda.

Aranyakas

Meaning ‘the forest books’. They discuss philosophical meditation  & sacrifice.

Vedangas

Evolved for proper understanding of the Vedas. Six in all: Siksha (phonetics), Kalpa

 

(rituals), Vyakarna, Nirukta (Etymology) Chhanda (metrics) & Jyotisha.

Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta of Adi Sankara.

 

Ancient Books & Authors

1.

Mudrakshasha (Chandragupta Maurya defeating the Nandas);

Vishakhadatta

 

Devichandraguptam

 

2.

Malavikagnimitram (Pushyamitra Sunga)

Kalidas

3.

Gudavaho (Yasovarman of Kannauj)

Vakpati

4.

Vikramanakadevacharita (Chalukya king Vikramaditya)

Bilhana

5.

Kumarapalacharita

Jayasimha

6.

Hammirakavya

Nyayachandra

7.

Dvayashraya Mahakavya; Sapta Sadhana

Hemchandra

8.

Navashasankacharita

Padmagupta

9.

Bhojaprabandha

Billal

10.

Prithvirajcharita

Chandrabardai

11.

Meghaduta; Raghuvamsa; Kumarasambhava; Vikramorvasiyam

Kalidas

 

Abhijnanashakuntalam (Drama);

 

12.

Mrichakatika

Sudraka

13.

Uttarama-Charita; Malati Madhava

Bhavbhuti

14.

Amarakosha

Amarasimha

15.

Si-yu-Ki

Hiuen Tsang

16.

Brahmasiddhanta; Khandakhadya

Brahmagupta

17.

Dasakumaracharita

Dandin

18.

Astanga-Sangraha; Astanga-Hirdaya-Samhita

Vagabhatta

19.

Panchsiddhantika; Suryasiddhanta; Brihatsamhita

Varahamihira

20.

Karpuramanjari; Bala Ramayana; Bala Bharata; Kavyamimamsa;

Rajshekhara

 

Bhuvana Kosha; Haravilasa

 

21.

Adinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)

Vardhamana

22.

Shantinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)

Devachandra

23.

Parsvanathacharita (Jaina Narrative)

Devabhadra

24.

Prithviraja Vijay

Jayanka

25.

Karnasundari

Bilhana

26.

Saraswati Kanthabharana

Bhoja

27.

Dasharupa

Dhananjaya

28.

Harikeli Nataka

Visaladeva

29.

Prasannaraghava

Jayadeva

30.

Siddhanta Shiromani [4 parts – Lilavati, Bijaganita, Grahaganita &

Bhaskaracharya

 

Gola (on Astronomy)]

 

31.

Rajmariganka (On Astronomy)

King Bhoja

32.

Chikitsakalika or Yogamala

Tisata-Vagbhatta’s Son

33.

Mitakasara

Vijnanaeshvara

34.

Nitishastra (On Polity)

Mathara

35.

Nitisara  (On Polity)

Kamandaka

36.

Sushruta Samhita (encyclopedia on surgery)

Sushruta

37.

Charaka Samhita (Teachings of Atreya)

Charaka

38.

Buddhacharita, Vajrasuchi, Suandarananda

Asvaghosha

39.

Mahabhasya

Patanjali

40.

Harshacharita, Kadambari

Banabhatta

41.

Ravan Vadha

Bhattin

 

Famous Inscriptions

Inscription

King

 

 

Aspect

Junagarh Rock

Rudradaman (Saka)

 

Sanskrit. Says that a dam on the sudarshana lake

 

 

 

 

 

 

was constructed by Pushyagupta a governor of

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chandragupta Maurya

Allahabad Pillar

Samudragupta

 

Sanskrit. Composed by Harisena

Aihole Inscription

Pulakeshin II

 

Mentions Harsha defeat by Pulakeshin II.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Composed by Ravikriti Vishnuvardan son of King.

Gwalior Inscription

Bhoja

 

 

Most famous Pratihara king.

Hathigumpha

Kharvela

 

 

 

 

Boghaz koi

Proves Rig Veda to be

 

Indra, Varuna, Mitra, two Nasatyas mentioned

[1400 B.C.]

more than 1400 BC old.

 

 

 

Nanaghat Inscription

Satkarni I

 

 

Achievements of the king

 

 

[Satvahana king]

 

 

 

Nasik Inscription

Gautamiputra Satkarni

 

Achievements of the king.

Mehrauli Iron Pillar

Chandragupta II

 

 

 

Mandsor Inscription

Kumaragupta I

 

Composed by Vatsabhatti.

Bhitari Stone pillar

Skandagupta

 

 

 

 

Tiruvalangadu

Rajendra I (Chola)

 

His conquests (annexed whole of SriLanka)

Uttaramerur

Cholar Period

 

Chola village assemblies

Besnagar Inscription

Near Vidisa (MP). Mentions Heliodorus the ambassador of king Antialcidas

 

 

called himself Bhagvata & erected garudadhvaja in his honour of Vasudev.

 

 

 

 

Buddhist Councils

I Buddhist Council

 

500 BC at

 

Ajatsataru .

 

Record the Buddha's sayings (sutra) and codify

 

 

Rajgaha

 

Presided by

 

monastic rules (vinaya). Rajgaha is today’s

 

 

 

 

Mahakasyapa

 

Rajgir

II Buddhist Council

 

383 BC at

 

Kalasoka

 

The conservative schools insisted on monastic

 

 

Vaishali

 

 

 

 

rules (vinaya). The secessionist Mahasangikas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

argued for more relaxed monastic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

rules.Rejection of the Mahasanghikas

III Buddhist Council

 

250 BC

 

Ashoka..

 

Purpose was to reconcile the different schools of

 

 

Pataliputra

 

 

 

 

Buddhism. Presided by Moggaliputta Tissa

IV Buddhist Council

 

100 AD

 

Kanishka

 

Division into Hinayana & Mahayana. Theravada

 

 

Kashmir

 

Presided by

 

Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of

 

 

 

 

Vasumitra &

 

this council, and it is sometimes called the

 

 

 

 

Asvaghosha

 

"council of heretical monks".

V Buddhist Council

 

1871

 

King Mindon

 

recite all the teachings of the Buddha and

 

 

Myanmar

 

 

 

 

examine them in minute detail to see if any of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

them had been altered

VI Buddhist Council

 

1954

 

P.M. U Nu

 

 

 

 

Yangoon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dynasties of Ancient Northern India

Dynasty

King

 

Description

Haryanka

Bimbisara*

 

Founded after overthrowing the Brihadrathas. He also annexed

 

 

 

Anga

 

Ajatasatru

 

Conquered Lichhavis of Vaisali. Also defeated Prasenajit of

 

 

 

Kosala. Succeded by Udayani who founded Pataliputra.

Sisunga

Sisunga

 

People elected Sisunga as Udayani & his 3 successors were

 

 

 

unworthy

Nanda

Mahapadma

 

Barber but a great military genius. Defeated many dynasties.

 

Nanda*

 

 

Alexander’s

Alexander

 

Defeated Persian King Darius III & marched to India through

Campaign

 

 

Khyber pass. King of Taxila offered help.

Mauryas

Chandragupta

 

Educated by Chanakya at Taxila. ‘Parisistha Parvam’ a jain text

 

Maurya*

 

describes that he defeated the Nanda king & became ruler of

 

[324-300 BC]

 

Magadha empire. Defeated Greek, Selecus who had succeded

 

 

 

Alexander in the eastern part. Selecus sent Megasthenes to his

 

 

 

court.

 

Bindusara

 

He appointed his two sons, Sumana at Taxila & Ashoka at Ujjain.

 

[300-273 BC]

 

Ptolemy Philadelphous of Egypt sent Dionysius to his court.

 

Ashoka

 

Known as devanampiya & piyadasi. Edicts were in Greek &

 

 

 

Aramaic in Afghanistan, Prakrit language & Kharosthi script in

 

 

 

Pakistan. Prakrit language & Brahmi script in other areas. Rock

 

 

 

Edict XIII (Kalinga war) Bhabru Edict (Buddhism as his religion)

 

 

 

VII (all sects desire self control & purity) XII (equal respect to all

 

 

 

religion) II (Dhamma – Common code of conduct). Succeded by 6

 

 

 

Mauryan kings from Dasaratha to Brihadratha.

Sunga

Pushyamitra

 

Army chief of Maurya king Brihadratha killed him while he was

 

Sunga

 

reviewing the army. Succeded by Agnimitra, Jethmitra &

 

 

 

Vasumitra. Last king was Devabhuiti.

Meghavahanas

Kharavela

 

Hathigumpha inscription on Udaigiri hills near Bhubneshwar

 

 

 

refers his achievement till 13th year. Ruled Kalinga.

Satvahanas of

Simuka*

 

Satvahanas also known as Andhras. Succeeded by Krishna,

Deccan

[235-213 BC]

 

Satkarni I, Satakarni II, Gautamiputra Satakarni, Pulmavi II, Sri

 

 

 

Yajna Satakarni.

Indo Greeks

Menander

 

Ruled in Pakistan region. Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena.

 

 

 

Milindapanho is related to their conversation.

Sakas

Nahapana

 

Sakas also known as Scythians were driven out of their original

 

 

 

home land by Yueh Chi who later came to be known as Kushanas.

 

 

 

Nahapana ruled in western India.

 

Rudradaman

 

Junagarh Rock Inscription talks about him. He undertook the

 

130-150 AD

 

repairs of the Sudarsan dam built by Pushyagupta, governor of

 

 

 

Chandra Gupta Maurya. Ujjaynii was capital. Dynasty came to an

 

 

 

end with the last king being defeated by Chandragupta II in 390

 

 

 

AD

Kushanas

Kadphises I

 

Also called Kujula Kadphises.  Kadphises I was succeded by his

 

 

 

son Wema Kadphises or Kadphises II – devotee of Shiva.

 

Kanishka

 

Succeded Kadphises II. Capital of his vast empire was Purushapur

 

73 - 101 AD

 

or modern Peshawar.

  

 

 

 

The Guptas & Later Period

Guptas

Chandragupta I

Sri Gupta was the first Gupta king followed by Ghatotkacha.

 

AD 320 AD

Chadragupta I was Ghatotkacha’s son.

 

Samudragupta

Son of Chandragupta I. Undertook south India campaign.

 

 

Meghavarna, King of Srilanka sent an embassy to his court to

 

 

build a monastery at Bodh Gaya.

 

Chandragupta II

Son of Samudtragupta & Duttadevi. Married his daughter

 

380-413 AD

Prabhavatigupta to Rudrasena II of Vataka dynasty. Defeated

 

 

Sakas & took the title of Vikramaditya.

 

Later Guptas

Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta (Inflicted a crushing defeat on the

 

 

Hunas; repair of the dam on Sudarsana lake built by chandragupta

 

 

maurya & earlier repared by Rudradaman I.

Post Gupta

From the decline of Gupta & the rise of Harsha there flourished four major kingdoms

Peiod

in north India: Guptas of Magadha, Maukharis (around Kanauj), Maitrakas

 

(Saurashtra – Vallabhi as capital), Pushyabhutis of Thaneshwar (Uttaranchal).

Pushyabhuti

Harshavardhana

Son of Prabhakarvardhana of Pushyabhuti of Thaneshwar. Brother

 

606 - 647 AD

of Rajyavardhana & Rajyasri (sister married to Maukhari king,

 

 

Grahavarman of Kanauj, later killed by Sasanka of Gauda). Also

 

 

known as Siladitya. Gauda was later divided between him &

 

 

Bhaskarvarman, the king of Kamarupa.

Deccan &

Vatakas (Deccan) - Vindhyasakti*, *Pravarasena*. Replaced by Chalukyas.

South India

Rashtrakutas - Dantidurga I*. They succeded Chalukyas of Badami.

 

Western Gangas (Mysore) - Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja*

 

Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi – Mayursarman*, *Kakusthavarman*

 

Pallavas of Kanchipuram - Simhavishnu, Mahendravarman , *Narsimhavarman*

 

Later Kanauj was ruled by Yashovarman (discussed in Vakpati’s Gaudavaho)

Gurjara

Nagabhatta I*

After Nagabhatta I came Vatsaraja who defeated Dharmapala but

Pratiharas

 

was in turn defeated by Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. Dhramapala

 

 

taking advantage installed his nominee chakrayudha at Kanauj

 

Nagabhatta II

Defeated Chakrayudha & captured Kanuaj & defeated

 

 

Dharmapala. Ramabhadra succeded him

 

Bhoja

Succeded his father Ramabhadra. Defeated Rashtrakuta king

 

 

Krishna II. He was devotee of Vishnu & took the title of

 

 

Adivaraha.  He was followed by great ruler Mahendrapala I

Palas

Gopala*

Elected by people to end Matsyanyaya (internal disorder). Next

 

 

was Dharmapala who installed Chakrayudha at Kanauj but was

 

 

defeated by Dhruva.

 

Devapala

Most mighty pala king.

Rashtrakutas

Dantidurga*

Dantidurga was succeded by his uncle Krishna I (built Kailasha)

 

Dhruva

Defeated both the Pratihara king Vatsaraja & Pala  Dharampala.

 

 

Was succeded by Govinda III & later Amoghavarsha I. Later

 

 

came Indra III (defeated pratihara Mahipala I) & Krishna III

Kamarupa

Bhaskarvarama

Ruled by single dynasty from the time of Mahabharata upto middle

 

 

7th century till Bhaskaravarma (ally of Harsha). Dynasty came to

 

 

an end after his death.

    

 

 

Mahajanapadas

1. Ancient Indian History (Quick Revision) UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Administrative Units & Their Ancient Names

S

Administrative Part

North India

South India

1.

Provinces

Bhukti

Mandalam

2.

Divisions

Vishaya or Bhoga

Kottams or Vallandadu

3.

District

Adhistana/Pattana

Nadu

4.

Tehsil

Vihtis

Pattala/Kurram

 

Jargon of Ancient Period

Lohit Ayas

Copper

Pradeshika

Head of district Administration

Syam Ayas

Iron

Nagarka

City administration

Vanik

Traders

Jesthaka

Chief of a Guild

Gramini

Village Head

Prathamakulika

Chief of artisans

Bhagadugha

Tax collector

Uparika

Governor of Bhukti

Sthapati

Chief Judge

Didishu

Remarried woman

Takshan

Carpenter

Amatya

High official

Niska

Unit of currency

Dvija

Initiation into education

Satamana

Unit of currency

Yukta

Revenue officer in the Mauryan period.

Pana

Term used for coin

Rajjukas

Land measurement & fixing land revenue

Shresthi

Guilds

Sabha

Assembly of few select ones

Vihara

Buddhist Monastery

Samiti

Larger Assembly

Chaitya

Sacred Enclosure

Dharamamahamatya

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