6. Natural Vegetation, Livestock and Their Conservation, National Parks and Sanctuaries , Geography of Rajasthan UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Rajasthan: Natural Vegetation

Rajasthan is blessed with great variety of natural resources ranging from scanty vegetation in the western arid region to mixed delicious and sub-tropical evergreen forests in the east and south east of Aravali ranges.

Forest cover is 32744.49 sq.km (12475 sq.km. is reserved, 18222 sq.km.is Protected Forest 2046.75 is unclassified forest) which is about 9.57% of the total area of the state.

Area wise the districts with decreasing forest cover are:- Udaipur>Baran>Alwar>Sirohi>Bundi

According the vegetation the forests of Rajasthan are divided into 9 sub-types:-

  • Dhol Forests: - covers about 60 % of the forest area, mainly located in the South-eastern parts of Aravali hills between 270 m to 770 m. Major species are Dhol and babul.
  • Kattha Forests: - covers about 3 % of the forest area and located in South-eastern regions of the state.
  • Salar Forests: - covers about 5 % of the forest area and located in upper ridges of Aravali. Major species are Salar, Kalayana, Gondla and Ber.
  • DhakForests: - covers badly drained clay soil forest and occupies foot hills and depressions.
  • Bamboo Forests:-covers about 2.5 % of the forest area and located in Chittorgah,kota,Udaipur and Abu regions of the state. It occurs as pure patches in depressions.
  • Teak Forests: - located in Southern and South-eastern regions of the state.
  • Mixed miscellaneous Forests covers about 20 % of the forest area and located in South-eastern regions of the state in the districts of Bundi, Sirohi, Kota, Udaipur and Chittorgarh.
  • Sub-Tropical Evergreen Forests located about 30 sq km around the Mt. Abu at an elevation of 1000m to 1300m where the rainfall is 150 cm.
  • Thorn Forests are located in arid areas of noth western regions of the state covering the districts of Nagaur,Pali,Sikar,Jhunjhunu, Ajmer,Jaisalmer and Jodhpur.

Various forest products obtained from forests of Rajasthan are:-

  • Gums and Resins
  • Tan and Dyes
  • Oil seeds and Oil yielding plants
  • Essential oil bearing plants
  • Species providing fibres and flosses
  • Edible product species.

Programmes for development and preservation of Forests:-

  • Plantation of trees in pasture lands
  • Van Mahotsav
  • Harit Rajasthan Yojna

 

Rajasthan: Livestock and Their Conservation

In the arid and semi-arid zone of Rajasthan animal rearing is the primary occupation and source of livelihood.

Census of livestock states them to be 5.77 crore in number which accounts for 11.8% of Indian Animal population.

Rajasthan has largest number of goats, sheep, camels and drought animals.

Density and Distribution of livestock in Rajasthan:-

  • Overall density of livestock in the state is 169/km^2
  • Districts with highest density:- Rajsamand>Dausa>Dungapur>Banswara>Sikar
  • While the lowest density is recorded in Jaisalmer
  • Very high density is recorded in the regions surrounding the Aravali hills

Cattle Rearing in Rajasthan

Rajasthan accounts for 6.89% of cattle’s.

Breeds of cattle:-

  • Nagauri:- Originated from sulakh region of Nagpur, is purely draught, ox are heavy load carriers
  • Kankrej:- Western Rajasthan, Dual Purpose Breed
  • Tharpakar:- Malani region of Jaisalmer, milk Breed
  • Rathi:- Jaisalmer and Ganganagar, Good in dairy but poor in draught condition
  • Harayanvi:- Ganganagar,churu, Alwar and Tonk, Dual Purpose Breed
  • Malvi:- Southern and south-eastern Rajasthan, Draught breed
  • Gir:- Ajmer,Good milk and draught breed
  • Mewati:- Jhunjhunu and sikar, Dual purpose breed
  • Sanchori:- jalore

 

Buffaloes: -It is abundantly found in semi-arid and semi-humid regions of the state. Two types of buffaloes

  • Murrah:-Eastern districts of Rajasthan. Best breed
  • Haryanvi: - border districts with Haryana. Inferior Breed

Sheep: - can survive on xerophyte plants with minimum water needs and thus is abundant in the arid regions of the state. Various breeds of sheep are:-

  • Chokhla:- Shekhawati region, Produces 1-2kg wool
  • Megra:- Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Pali and Nagpur ,Produces 5 kg wool
  • Nali:- Bikaner, Hanumangarh and ganganagar, Produces 3-4 kg wool
  • Marwari:- Arid and semi-arid regions, Produces 1-2 kg wool
  • Pugal:- Bikaner, Produces 2 kg wool
  • Jaisalmeri:- jaisalmer,Produces 3.5  kg wool
  • Bagri:- Alwar, Dholpur and Bharatpur
  • Malpuri:- Tonk, Jaipur and Dosa
  • Sonari:- Southern districts of Rajasthan, Produces 1.5 kg wool

 

Goats: - 216.66 Lakh in number, largest amongst domestic animals, various varieties are:-

  • Jamnapuri- up to 3 ld./day
  • Barbari- upto 1.5  ld./day
  • Alwari
  • Jhalwari- up to 1 ld./day

Camels: - 3.26 lakhs in number, various breeds of camel are:-

  • Bikaneri
  • Jodhpuri
  • Nachna
  • Jaisalmeri
  • Kutchi
  • Jalori
  • Mewari
  • Gomat
  • Gurha
  • Kerupal
  • Alwari

National Parks and Sanctuaries in Rajasthan

S.No

Name of National Parks/ Wild Life Sanctuary

District

Area(Sq.km.)

National Parks

1

Keoladeo National Park

Bharatpur

28.73

2

Ranthambore National Park

SawaiMadhopur

392.50

 

 

Sub Total

421.23

 

Sanctuaries

1

BandhBaratha WL Sanctuary

Bharatpur

199.50

2

Bassi WL Sanctuary

Chittorgarh

138.69

3

Bhensrodgarh WL Sanctuary

Chittorgarh

229.14

4

Darrah Game Sanctuary

Kota, Jhalawar

274.41

5

Desert WL Sanctuary

Barmer, Jaisalmer

3,162.00

6

FulwarikiNal WL Sanctuary

Udaipur

492.68

7

Jaisamand WL Sanctuary

Udaipur

52.34

8

JamwaRamgarh WL Sanctuary

Jaipur

300.00

9

JawaharSagar WL Sanctuary

Kota

153.41

10

Keladevi WL Sanctuary

Karoli,SawaiMadhopur

676.40

11

Kesarbagh WL Sanctuary

Dholpur

14.76

12

Kumbalgarh WL Sanctuary

Udaipur,Rajsamand,Pali

608.57

13

Mount Abu WL Sanctuary

Sirohi

112.98

14

Nahargarh WL Sanctuary

Jaipur

50.00

15

National Chambal WL Sanctuary

Kota, S.Madhopur, Bundi, Dholpur, Karauli

280.00

16

RamgarhVishdhari WL Sanctuary

Bundi

252.79

17

Ramsagar WL Sanctuary

Dholpur

34.40

18

Sajjangarh WL Sanctuary

Udaipur

5.19

19

Sariska WL Sanctuary

Alwar

557.50

20

SawaiManshingh WL Sanctuary

SawaiMadhopur

127.76

21

Shergarh WL Sanctuary

Kota

98.70

22

Sitamata WL Sanctuary

Chittorgarh,Udaipur

422.94

23

Tal Chappar WL Sanctuary

Churu

7.19

24

TodagarhRawaliWLSanctuary

Ajmer,Pali,Rajsamand

463.03

25

Van Vihar WL Sanctuary

Dholpur

25.60

 

 

Sub Total

8,739.98

 

 

Grand Total

9,161.21

 

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