8. Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Resources , Tribes, Geography of Rajasthan UPSC Notes | EduRev

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8. Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Resources , Tribes, Geography of Rajasthan UPSC Notes | EduRev

Petroleum, natural gas, coal, nitrogen, uranium and water power are examples of conventional sources of energy. They're also called non-renewable sources of energy and are mainly fossil fuels, except water power. Rising growth of population has created a tremendous pressure on the conventional resources of energy and thus the concept of sustainable development get prominent position. Rajasthan has great source of conventional energy resources which have played a key role in the modern agricultural, industrial and economic development.


Rajasthan is poor in coal resources and lignite coal of tertiary era is found in the state. Major lignite deposits of Rajasthan are:-

  1. Palana lignite deposits- South of Bikaner
  2. Kapurdi- Barmer
  3. Merta- Nagaur
  4. Gurha- Bikaner


Oil and Natural Gas 

The extensive occurrences of petroleum basins in Western Rajasthan have made it a large potential region for hydrocarbons. With the untiring efforts of State Government, a total of 400.00 million tons of crude oil prospectus and 11.79 billion cubic meters of gas have been proved in the State, which has opened the path of rapid economic development of the State.

  • Barmer-Sanchore Basin,
  • Jaisalmer Basin &
  • Bikaner-Nagaur Basin,

These have the potential of hydrocarbon and lignite deposits. These three basins are now recognized as Category-Ion the basis of their proven commercial productivity.

Various projects started by government are:-


Import of oil and natural gas has been a major burden on Indian economy and the production of hydrocarbons from the basins of Rajasthan has been a boon for the nation


Nuclear Resources

  • Nuclear resources in Rajasthan could help a great deal in the energy security of the nation
  • The deposit found at Rohil in Rajasthan’s Sikar district is estimated at 5,185 tonnes, which makes it the fourth largest in the country after Tummalapalle, Chitrial and Peddagattu extension in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The new site is close to the Rohil North region, which has already been found to have a deposit of about 381 tonnes.


Non-conventional Energy Resources of Rajasthan


8. Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Resources , Tribes, Geography of Rajasthan UPSC Notes | EduRev

Development of non-conventional sources of energy is of prime importance for the sustainable and inclusive growth in the state. Conventional energy resources are depleting at an accelerated rate and non-conventional resources could play a leading role in energy security in the state. Non-Conventional energy resources could minimise the transmission cost and energy divide between the remote locations


  • Rajasthan has a unique geographical location in the tropical climate which enables it with high solar radiation intensity throughout the year.
  • Sky is clear with abundant sunlight for about 300 days a year
  • Solar insulation is greater than 600 Kcal/ sq. cm. throughout the state.
  • solar energy could be used as heat energy or could be converted into electricity through photovoltaic cells.

8. Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Resources , Tribes, Geography of Rajasthan UPSC Notes | EduRev

Various uses of solar energy are:-


  1. Solar Power thermal plants - such as at Mathania with help of world bank
  2. Solar Gasifier- Kota, Bharatpur, Hanumangarh and Lunkaransar
  3. Solar Milk Chilling Plant- Bharatpur
  4. Solar Cookers
  5. Solar Road Lights
  6. Solar water pumps


  • Velocity of wind in Rajasthan is 10-20 Km/Hr which could be harnessed to produce wind energy.
  • Wind mills and Aero generator are two means to utilize wing energy
  • Wind mills:- Jaisalmer,Phalodi and Deogarh
  • Aero Generator has been established in Jaisalmer.


  • Mustard husk and Julie flora are the two main source of biomass energy in the state.

Urban Waste

  • Cities produce lot of bio degradable products which could be used in energy production as one established in Timarpur Delhi


Tribes: Their history, geographical location, economy and their customs


Geographical location and populations

History and lineage

Economic activity

Social and Family life


Constitute about 51.20% of population and concentrated in districts of Jaipur,Dausa, SawaiMadhopur, Rajsamand and Udaipur


Word meena means fish, Chandrabhardai states their origin to the kingdom south of alwar,dausa and bharatpur prior to Rajput rule

They are divided into the Zamindars and Chaukidars.

Chaukidarmeens consider themselves to be superior and are seldom involved in criminal activities.

Bhrama,Gandharva and Rakshasha

form of marriage were prevalent in

meenas. Divorce is not common but

 husband can tear a piece of dupatta

and put in palm of wife to divorce.

Family is patrilineal and joint in nature.


Largely settled in Banswara,Bhilwara, Dungapur, Udaipur,Sirohi and Chitorgarh Districts

Anthropologists consider them to be decedents of Mundas, Col. Tod consider them to be the aboriginal inhabitants of aravali area of then Mewar state.

They were traditionally nomadic but now they practice Chaimata(Burnig of hill slopes for cereals,pulses and vegetables cultivation) and Dajia(felling forest of plains) type of Agriculture.

They wrap Falu around their wriest.

Their houses are known as Koo

Village chief is called Tadvi and Banso.

They eat non vegiteranian food and are habitual drinker of Mahua(local wine)


Mainly in Udaipur District

Decendents of Chauhans and rajputs.

Mainly depends on agriculture and cattle rearing

They have patrilineal family.

Three form of marriage (i)MorBandhiya (ii)Paharwana (iii) Tanna are prevalent.

Widow remarriage is prevalent.



Trace to person named Sansmal

They live nomadic life, small scale handicrafts and cottage industries

They don’t have permanent residence and are exogamous in nature.

Widow marriage is not allowed.




Farming and cattle breading.

Their villages are known sahrol

They are peace loving

Sagotra marriage is forbidden




And Ajmer


Of wood

Thievery, Dacoit and highway robbery

They worship “Pati Manga” before their criminal activities.

Head is known as Patel.

They take oath of Hakam raja

Non vegetarian  and alcoholic


Kotari Tehsil in Baran


Agricultural labours



Seeemalwarapanchayat of Dungarpur

Trace their origin to Rajput’s


They are non-vegetarian and drink alcohol.

Widow goes for Nataie informal marriage with some person.

Child Mundan is prevalent.

Highly Superstitious and believes in ghosts and magic

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