Active And Passive Voice Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : Active And Passive Voice Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Active And Passive Voice

Voice

Voice is that form of the transitive verb that shows whether the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action or has the action done to it.

For example:

Mohan played football.’ – This sentence is said to be in the active voice. Here, Mohan is the subject and he is the doer of the action, i.e. ‘played football’.
The action of the subject is transferred to the object ‘football because Mohan has done something to the ‘football’. 

The passive voice of this sentence is: Football was played by Mohan.

Here the subject is ‘football’ which was ‘object’ in the active sentence. So here something is done to the subject ‘football’, i.e. it suffers the action done by something or someone.


Rules for the Change of Voice

  • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the verb in the passive voice. The preposition ‘by’ is put before it.
  • The main verb of the active sentence changes into the past participle.
  • The form of the verb to be (am, is, are, was, were, being, been) is placed before the main verb according to the tense.
  • The auxiliary verb is changed according to the new subject in number and person.

⇨ Rule 1: Identify the (S+V+O) Subject, Verb and object in the active sentence to convert to passive voice
Example: He drives car. (Subject – He, verb – Drives, object – Car)

⇨ Rule 2: Interchange the object and subject with each other, i.e. object of the active sentence become the subject of the passive sentence.
Example: Active voice: She knits sweater. (Subject – She, Verb – Knits, Object – Sweater)
Passive Voice: The sweater is knitted by her. (Object sweater is interchanged with the subject She).

⇨ Rule 3: In passive voice sometimes the subject is not used, i.e. the subject in passive voice can be omitted if the sentence without it gives enough meaning.

Example: Milk is sold in litres

⇨ Rule 4: Change the base verb in the active sentence into the past participle ie. third form verb in a passive sentence i.e. preceded by (By, With, to, etc). Base verbs are never used in passive voice sentences.
Example: 
1. Active voice: She prepares dinner.

Passive voice: The dinner is prepared by her.
2. Active voice: She knows him.

Passive voice: He is known to her.

3. Active voice: Juice fills the jar.

Passive voice: The jar is filled with juice.

⇨ Rule 5: While conversion of Active voice sentence to Passive voice sentence, the pronoun used in the sentence also changes in the following manner.

Active Voice PronounPassive Voice Pronoun
IMe
WeUs
HeHim
SheHer
TheyThem
YouYou
ItIt

⇨ Rule 6: Use the suitable helping or auxiliary verb (is/am/are/was, etc.). The rules for using auxiliary verbs in passive voice sentences are different for each tense.
Example:
1. The letter is written by her
2. A book was not bought by her
3. Chocolates are being eaten by them.

Forms of Active And Passive Voice For All Tenses

⇨ Simple Present Tense 

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
He writes an essayAn essay is written by him
Sheena does the houseworkThe housework is done by Sheena
She cares for the rabbitThe rabbit is being cared for by her
Jacob always plays the guitar The guitar is always played by Jacob

⇨ Present Continuous Tense

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
They are eating bananasThe bananas are being eaten by them
Bob is drawing a diagramA diagram is being drawn by Bob
Samta is playing the pianoA piano is being played by Samta
She is waiting for ReemaReema is being waited for by her

⇨ Present Perfect Tense 

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
Has he done the work?Has the work been done by him?
Have they left the apartment?Has the apartment been left by them?
He created this masterpieceThis masterpiece is created by him
He read the newspaperThe newspaper is being read by him

Note- [except certain exemptions, no passive Voice formation for the following tenses can be formed, Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Future Perfect Continuous Tense and Future Continuous Tense]

⇨ Simple Past Tense

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
Ria paid the billsThe bills were paid by Ria
The teacher called the studentThe student was called by the teacher
She did not buy the fruitsThe fruits were not bought by her

⇨ Past Progressive/Continuous Tense

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
They were waiting for himHe was being waited for by them
Astha was learning FrenchFrench was being learnt by Astha
She was playing kabaddiKabaddi was being played by her

⇨ Past Perfect Tense

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
She won the matchThe match had been won by her
I had finished her workHer work had been finished by me
He had missed the last metroThe last metro had been missed by him

⇨ Simple Future Tense 

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
He will write a letterA letter will be written by him
He will repair her cycleHer cycle will be repaired by him
He shall start the meetingThe meeting will be started by him

⇨ Future Perfect Tense

Active Sentences
Passive Sentences
Meena will not have changed the bedsheetThe bed sheet will not have been changed by Meena
They will have won the matchThe match will have been won by them
Reena will have washed the skirtThe skirt will have been washed by Reena
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