Ques 1: Name the writer of the novel 'Anandamath.' (1)
Ans: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaya is the author of the novel 'Anandamath'.
Ques 2: Name the river which is related to 'National Waterways' No. 1. (1)
Ans: The Ganga river, between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) - N.W. No. 1
Ques 3: How do 'pressure groups' form? (1)
Ans: Pressure groups are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations, or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective, at times forcing government to fulfil their wishes.
Ques 4: Explain the meaning of 'challenge.' (1)
Ans: 'Challenge' is a call or summon to engage in any contest, as of skill, strength, etc.
Ques 5: Give an example of any 'pressure group' of India which functions as a branch of 'political party.' (1)
Ans: Akhil Bharatiya Vidya Parishad (ABVP) functions as a branch of the political party 'Bharatiya Janata Party' (BJP) in India.
Ques 6: Highlight the inherent problem in double coincidence of wants. (1)
Ans: Double coincidence of wants means that when someone wants to exchange his goods with another person the latter must also be willing to exchange his good with the first person.
Ques 7: Give any one example of consumer's 'right to choose.' (1)
Ans: An example of consumer's right to choose is - if a person purchases an electronic products, which turns out to be faulty, a person by producing a receipt can claim to replace or get a refund of it,
Ques 8: If you want to extract information about the functions of any government department, which right would you exercise? (1)
Ans: Right to Information Act is used to extract information about the functions of any government department.
Ques 9: Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. (3 × 1 = 3)
Describe any three changes that came in the life of Vietnamese after the colonisation of Vietnam by the French.
Ans: The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
1. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
2. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
3. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
4. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
5. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
6. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted .
7. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
French's control over Vietnam affected all aspects of the life of the Vietnamese. The most visible impact was witnessed on the field of economy and defence. However, culture too was deeply impacted. The French established control over the education system of Vietnam to consolidate its control.
1. Economic- For French, colonies were necessary to provide natural resources and other goods. The Vietnamese economy was based on rice cultivation and rubber plantation to meet the French needs. Labours were hired on contracts, gradually landlordism became well entrenched and standard of living declined. To suit the French requirements for easy transportation of goods massive infrastructure projects, rail networks were established.
2. Religion- The French in order to consolidate its control and authority wanted to exercise cultural and social domination and influence. One such way was to introduce Christianity in Vietnam , establish Christian Missionaries and encourage conversions.
3. Education- The French in order to civilize the natives, introduced modern education and dismantled the traditional education system in Vietnam. They followed the policy of discrimination against the Vietnamese students, of deliberately failing students. The education system glorified French rule.
4.Health and Hygiene- French tried to create modern Vietnam with modern architecture and engineering skills to build a modern city in Hanoi but the native quarter was not provided with modern facilities.
5. Political- France had taken control over Tonkin and Annam for the purpose of controlling the colony and to halt British desire to expand southwards from China. France prevented Vietnamese from qualifying for white collar jobs which resulted in resistance
Ques 10: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: Gandhiji decided to launch nation wide satyagraha against Rowlatt Act in1919 because of the following reasons:
1. The terms and conditions of Rowlatt act were very obnoxious, they were violating of civil rights of Indians.
2. This act had been hurriedly passed through the imperial legislative council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
3. Moreover, Gandhiji had already seen the success in satyagraha movements in regions like Champaran, Kheda. These had prepared the ground for a nation-wide satyagraha.
Ques 11: Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs popolar points etc., in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle. (3)
Ans: In India the feeling of nationalism is associated with anti colonial movement. In the process of their struggle against the colonial yoke people began to discover their own identity of belonging to one nation. Various folk tales, songs, symbols like national flag, tricolour flag gave a sense of identity to the people. It gave a true picture of India's culture which was so rich and uncorrupted. They served to produce a sense of achievement and to glorify India's past. They boosted Indians self confidence who then strongly waged a war against the colonial rule.
1. National song like Vande matram instilled a sense of belongingness uniting people from different languages. Identity of India came to be associated with Bharat Mata was depicted as composed, divine, spiritual.
2. Folk tales, songs, hymns were used by our national leaders to give a sense of pride in our own culture.
3. Likewise Khadi, charka used by Mahatma Gandhi became symbols of agitation and resistance.
4. Folk tales, songs, literature used by nationalists gave a true picture of India's culture which was so rich and uncorrupted.
5. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths.
6. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India which he believed was a national literature.
Ques 12: Describe any three characteristics of 'Odisha-Jharkhand belt' of iron one in India. (3)
Ans: Odisha - Jharkhand Belt:
(i.) In Odisha, high grade haematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. In the adjoining Singhbhum district of Jharkhand; haematite iron ore is mined in Goa and Noamundi.
(ii.) This belt contains high grade hematite ore found in Kendujhar and Mayurbhanj mines; exported via Paradwip Port.
(iii.) Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.
Ques 13: Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries.
Ans: Agriculture and industries are interrelated to each other and move hand in hand which are explained in the following points :
(i.) Agriculture serves as a major source of raw materials to many industries.
(ii.) Industries obtain raw materials from agriculture and produce finished products. For example, Jute, sugar, cotton textiles etc.
(iii.) Manufacturing industries which are involved in the production of tools, equipment's have helped in modernizing agriculture.
(iv.) Industries are also involved in producing fertilizers, pesticides, plastics and other tools for the farmers.
(v.) Agro based industries have also provided employment in the rural areas.
Ques 14: Why do the movement of goods and services from one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport. Explain with examples. (3)
Ans: Reasons for fast and efficient means of transport :
(i.) It is necessary to carry raw materials to production centers and from manufacturing hubs to markets in as little time as possible to achieve efficiency. This is particularly true for perishable goods.
(ii.) It enables goods to reach newer markets and allows people greater accessibility to goods and services. Efficient transport network enables markets to expand to hinterland.
(iii.) Communication opens new avenues of commerce. Modern communication tools like internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances, facilitating electronic commerce and banking across countries and contributing to integration of markets. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.
(iv.) Goods and services cannot move on their own from supply houses to demand locales. This necessitates the need for transportation. Thus, a country's economy depends not only on the production and sale of goods and services, but on their transport as well.
(v.) The means of transportation and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy because they are the preconditions for progress and development.
Ques 15: Differentiate between Nepal's movement and Bolivia's popular struggle. (3)
Ans: The difference between popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia
The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic govt.
The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy 1e privatisation of water while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundation of the country's politics.
The protest in Nepal was led by a political party, (SPA) while in Bolivia it was led by a pressure group(FEDECOR)
The impact of these struggles was at different levels. The impact of the struggle in Nepal was for the entire world, while in Bolivia it was only for the citizens of the country.
Ques 16: How do the pressure groups and movements influence polities? Explain with examples. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: Pressure groups and movements exert pressure on government policies in the following ways :
1. They conduct meetings and rallies to draw the attention of the media and government.
2. They organise strikes and dharanas to stop the normal functioning of the government.
3. Sometimes some noted persons of the pressure groups like the business groups or professionals they participate in the official meetings and offer advices to the government.
4. Some times it is also noted that pressure groups are either formed or led by political parties.
Political parties, pressure groups and movements influence those in power. These are agents, machines and processes in politics which are designed to wield power over those in power in order to control the outcome of distribution of resources.
Ques 17: Analyse any three values that make democracy better. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: The following could be some of the reasons why a democracy is a better form of government.
1. Freedom of expression granted in a democratic nation. For example, the role of media, it allows people to form groups, indulge in peaceful protests to vent their grievances.
2. It ensures transparency in its functioning. example the recent introduction of the Right to Information.
3. It enhances dignity of the individual. Democracies ensures rights to the individuals which allows them to develop to the fullest. Example Fundamental Rights.
4. It is more accountable form, of government. The fear of losing elections compels political parties to be responsive to the need of the people.
5. It ensures adequate power sharing and respect for minorities.
Ques 18: "Banks are efficient medium of exchange." Support the statement with arguments. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: People deposit their money with banks by opening a bank account. Banks keep the money safe and provides interest on the deposited amount. The deposited money can be withdrawn from banks as when required on demand. Bank deposits also facilitate easy transfer of money through cheques, demand drafts and internet banking.
Banks keep only 15% of their total cash deposits to meet the everyday withdrawal demands of their customers. Major portion of the remaining deposits are used to give loans to people at specific rate of interest.
Ques 19: Examine any three conditions which should be taken care of by multinational companies to set up their production units. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: MNC's decision to set up production units of certain commodities in other countries is determined by the following conditions:
i. Proximity to markets and availability of buyers.
ii. Availability of cheap labor both skilled and unskilled,
iii. Availability of raw materials at lowest possible rates and
iv. Support from the government like providing SEZ's that is special economic zones.
v. Assured profits
vi. Support from local companies and manufacturers.
Ques 20: Analyse any three reasons for the beginning of the consumer movement in India. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: At world level the origin of consumer movement was in the form of consumer cooperatives. The first cooperative came in 1904 in Madras but there was not much development till 1962. The objectives of consumer movement were different in India from those of western countries.
Objective of Indian consumer movement in 1970 were as follows :
Shortage of consumer products
Adulteration and black marketing
Range of product is less due to lack of technology advancement
Main focus was on availability, price and purity.
But in recent year there has been change in the objectives and factors, such as :
Increasing consumer awareness
Increasing quality of goods
Enhancing consumer expectation by educating them about their rights
Organised efforts through consumer societies.
Now consumer grievances cell has been opened for the protection of consumer interest. Consumers are representatives on a number of consumer welfare committees. These cells are active in urban area but most of the rural areas are still untouched. So there is need to open up more cells so that everyone can come under one umbrella.
Ques 21: Who hosted 'Vienna Congress' in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the 'Vienna Treaty? (1 + 4 = 5)
Analyse the role of 'Hoa-Hao' movement to arouse anti-imperialist sentiments in Vietnam.
Ans: The Congress of Vienna was held in 1815.It was chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. It was held to draw up a new settlement for Europe amongst the European powers after the defeat of Napoleon. It main objective was to redraw the map of Europe and to undo the changes that had come about in Europe during the period of Napoleon. European powers were driven by the ideology of Conservatives whose main aim was to establish monarchial regimes in Europe.
The following changes were made:
1. The Bourbon Dynasty was restored to power.
2. France had to part with most of its territories which were annexed by Napoleon.
3. A large number of States were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent its further expansion.
4. The kingdom of Neither land was set up in North.
5. Prussia was given important territories on its Western frontiers.
6. Austria was given control of Northern Italy.
7. German confederation of 39 States remained intact.
8. Prussia was given part of Saxony.
9. Russia was given part of Poland
The Hoa Hoa movement was found by a man called Huynh Phu So in 1939. It gained great popularity in the fertile mekong Delta area. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti - French uprisings of the nineteenth century. Huynh Phu So's criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol. Fench put him in metal asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to who had to prove him insane became his follower in 1941 even the French doctors declared that he was sane. The french authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Ques 22: "Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and the notion of 'Swaraj'." Support the statement. (5)
Ans: Workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of swaraj. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages. They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Ques 23: 'Energy saved is energy produced.' Assess the statement. (5)
Ans: Conservation of energy is essential because it protects our environment from green house gas emission and also saves valuable resources from getting depleted. If we save energy then only more energy can be produced. It is essential to use non- conventional sources of energy.
Following are some measures to conserve energy resources:
(i.) We should try to use more and more public transport system instead of private vehicles.
(ii.) Electronic devices must be switched off when not in use.
(iii.) It is necessary to use more and more power saving devices.
(iv.) Reduce consumption of non- renewable sources of energy.
(v.) If possible solar power should be used to generate electricity.
(vi.) Recycling of goods and commodities can also help to conserve energy.
Ques 24: Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy. (2 + 3 = 5)
Ans: Following are the challenges faced by jute industries in India :
(i.) Prices of jute textiles are so low that industrialists hesitate to set up these industries.
(ii.) International demand of jute goods is falling sharply which is not an encouragement for these industries.
(iii.) Many countries now prefer substitutes for jute like plastic or synthetic fibres which reduces its demand.
(iv.) Our jute industries face hard competition from Brazil, Thailand, Bangladesh and Egypt whose production cost of jute textile is much lower than that of India.
(v.) As jute exhausts soil fertility very fast and also because of its low profits , farmers now prefer to cultivate alternative crops like Rice.
The government has taken the following steps to boost Jute production :
(i.) Government has made it compulsory in the country to use jute packaging.
(ii.) In 2005, our government formulated the National Jute policy with the following aims:
To expand production
To enhance quality
To provide good prices to the farmers
To enhance yield per hectare.
(iii.) With the increased awareness about environmental degradation many state governments have also banned the use of plastic bags and recommended jute or paper bags.
Ques 25: "Democracy is very important for promoting dignity and freedom of the citizens." Support the statement with arguments. (5 × 1 = 5)
Ans: 1. Laws and policies such as right to equality provides everybody the same respect and opportunity.
2. Democratic govt. usually curbs such activities which discriminates the person or any group. for e.g, abolition of untouchability.
3. Judiciary provides everybody a equal right to put forward their complaints when they are discriminated.
Ques 26: Describe any five efforts made to reform political parties in India. (5 × 1 = 5)
Ans: Some measures taken by government to reform political parties have been:
1. Anti defection law, which states that if any sitting MLA or MP changes his party, he will lose his seat in the legislature.
2. It is mandatory now for every candidate to furnish all details related to the assets, criminal cases pending.
3. Election Commission has made it mandatory for parties to hold regular elections a file income tax.
4.Recent judgement by Supreme Court that disqualifies convicted MP's and MLA's who have sentenced to more than two years of imprisonment by the lower court and whose appeal against their conviction is pending, and is debarred from contesting elections is considered to be the landmark decision by the apex court to clean the system
Other suggestions for reforms:
1. The financial accounts of the parties must be audited, this will decrease the role of private big business house donors.
2. State funding of political parties must be done to meet their election expenditure.
3. The accounts must be made available to public.
4. Parties must come under the ambit of Right to information to increase transparency in the system.
5. Common people must be encouraged to give donations to parties and such citizens must be exempted from income tax
6 Parties must encourage inner party democracy, have regular elections.
7. They must encourage participation of women.