Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 9

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Class 9 : Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRev

The document Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 9 Course Science Class 9.
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Cell BIOLOGYCell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRevFig: CellCytology:- The cell and its structures are studied under a branch of biology called cytology.
Cell- The structural & functional unit of living beings is called a cell.
OR 

A mass of protoplasm bounded by a plasma membrane.

OR
A unit of biological activity, delimited by a differentially permeable membrane and capable of self-reproduction.

DISCOVERY OF CELL
1. Robert Hooke (1665):- An English man and first curator of

Royal Society of London.

  • Observed a thin transverse section of the bark of a tree under a self-designed microscope.
  • He noticed honey - comb like compartments.
  • He coined the term cell.
  • He wrote a book -Micrographia.
  • He actually observed dead cells.Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRevFig: image drawn by Hooke and cork tissue 

2. Antony Van Leeuwenhoek (1674) was first to observe living cells like bacteria [from tartar of teeth] erythrocytes [fish], sperms and protozoans [eg. Vorticella]

3. N. Grew (1682):- Proposed cell concept which states that a cell is the unit of structure of organisms.

4. Rudolf Virchow (1858):- Proposed that new cells formed from the pre-existing cells.

5. Knoll & Ruska (1932) :- Designed the electron microscope which was employed to study the ultra structure of a cell and various cell organelles.

Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRevFig: microscope designed by knoll and ruska

Basic criteria for defining the cell-
(i) Presence of genetic material
(ii) Presence of limiting plasma membrane.
(iii) Presence of a metabolic machinery.

  • A cell is called the structural unit of living being because the body of all living organisms is made up of one or more cells.
  • Cell is called functional unit of all organisms, because all the vital activities or physiological activities [i.e. respiration, digestion, excretion, circulation, etc are performed at the level of cell].

Cell is called structural & functional unit of life because-
(i) All the living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
(ii) All the cells have similar basic structure.
(iii) Similar cell organelles of different cells perform similar functions.

CELL THEORY
Cell theory was presented by Schleiden (Botanist) (1838)

and Schwann (Zoologist) (1839). Accordingly, all plants and animals are composed of cells and the cell is the basic unit of life.
Later discoveries led to the modification of cell theory. Modified cell theory is termed as cell principle or modern cell theory.
Modern cell theory postulates that :-

1. All living beings are composed of minute units, the cells ;

2. A cell is a mass of protoplasm containing a nucleus and bounded by a cell membrane, and in many cases by a cell wall also;

3. All cells are basically alike in structure and metabolic activities;

4. The functions of an organism as a whole is the result of the activities and interactions of the constituent cells; and

5. All living cells arise from the pre-existing cells.

(A) Size of cell- Normal size in human 20 µm to 30 µm in diametre.

(i) Largest cell- In animals - Ostrich egg [15 cm is diametre]

In plants - Acetabularia [6-10 cm]

(ii) Longest cell- In animals - Nerve cell [upto 1mt]

In plants - Hemp fibre.

(iii) Smallest cell- PPLO - Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organism [Mycoplasma - 0.1 to 0.5 µm.]

(B) Shape of cell- Shape of cell mainly depends upon the specific function it performs.

(i) Elongated - Nerve cell 

(ii) Discoidal/saucer - RBC

(iii) Spindal - Muscle cell 

(iv) Spherical - Eggs.

(v) Branched - Pigment cell of the skin. 

(vi) Slipper shaped - Paramecium

(vii) Cuboidal - Germ cells of gonads. 

(viii) Polygonal - Liver cells. 

Units of Measurement Used in Cell Biology:-

The cells and their organelles are measured by fractions or multiples of a millimetre. A millimetre is one-thousandth of a metre. Its symbol is mm. One-thousandth of a millimetre is called a micron, or micrometer. Its symbol is mm and it is equal to 10-6 mm. One thousandth of a micron is termed millimicron or nanometre. Its symbol is nm. One-tenth of a millimicron is known as Angstrom. Its symbol is Å.

1 mm (millimetre) = 10-3 metre

1 mm (micrometre) = 10-3 mm

1 nm or 1 mm (millimicrometre) = 10-3 mm or 10-6 mm

1 Å (Angstrom) = 10-1 nm or 10-1 mm or 10-7 mm.

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes:Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRevFig:  Eukaryote and prokaryote respectively

All living organisms are made of cells. And based on the kind of cells they are made up of, they are divided into two groups -prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes, which include bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), appeared (on the earth) about 3, 500 million years ago. All other organisms are eukaryotes, and they probably evolved from prokaryotes.

 Differences between prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells

FeatureProkaryotic cellEukaryotic cell
Cell sizeAverage diameter 0.5-5μmDiameter varies between. 1μm-40 μm

Protoplasm
Relatively rigid, resistant to desiccation (drying) and can withstand wide changes in pressure and temperatureMore fluid and sensitive to drying and to changes in temperature and pressure.
NucleusLacks true nucleus; circular DNA lies
 naked in the cytoplasm; no
 chromosomes, nucleolus or nuclear
 membrane; nucleoplasm
 undifferentiated from cytoplasm
True nucleus bound by nuclear membrane
 contains linear DNA associated with
 proteins and RNA (forming
 chromosomes); nucleolus and nuclear
 membrane present; nucleoplasm distinct
OrganellesMembrane-bound organelles like Golgi
 bodies, plastids, mitochondria and
 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are absent.
Membrane-bound organelles present.
RibosomesSmaller and randomly scattered in the
 cytoplasm
Bigger, can be free or attached to the ER
Cell divisionDivides by simple fission; spindle is not
 formed; no mitosis and meiosis
Divides by mitosis or by meiosis
RespirationRespiratory enzymes are located on the
 plasma membrane
Mitochondria are the seat of aerobic
 respiration
PhotosynthesisNo organized chloroplast; photosynthesis
 takes place on photosynthetic membranes
 which lie freely in the cytoplasm
Organized chloroplasts (containing stacked
 membranes called grana) take part in
 photosynthesis
ExamplesBacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green
 algae)
All other organisms.

Number of cells - On the basis of number of cells the organisms can be categorised as -

(i) Unicellular- Single celled - eg - Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Plasmodium- Malarial parasite, Chlamydomonas.

(ii) Multi cellular- Numerous cells eg - Higher Plants & Animals.

Cell, Types of Cell and Organisms Class 9 Notes | EduRevFig: Diversity of cells

Majority of the multicellular organisms have a large body composed of numerous cells. The number of cells in such organisms is correlated to the size of the body. For instance, a human being weighing about 60 kg has about 60 × 1015 cells, and the blood (vascular tisue) in human contains about 30 × 1015 corpuscles. There are also instances wherein the number of cells are fixed in multicellular organisms, e.g., rotifers and nematodes. In such organisms, mitosis stops during embryonic development. The phenomenon of having a fixed, genetically constant number of cells is called eutely.

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