Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chemistry Class 12

Class 12 : Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 12 Course Chemistry Class 12.
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1. (Alkane) 

Wurtz reaction : e.g., R1 X + R2X + 2 Na → R1- R2 + 2NaX

Decarboxylation : 
General reaction Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Mechanism Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
The thermal decarboxylation of free acids may be :Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev


(2. Alkyl halide)

Nucleophilic substitution Reaction (SN1, SN2)
SN1 reaction :
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Mechanism
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
e.g.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
SN2 reaction : Alkylhalide are hydrolysed to alcohol very solwly by water, but rapidly by silver oxide suspended in boiling water.
RX + KOH → ROH + KX
Mechanism
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Williamson’s synthesis: It is the reaction in which sodium or potassium alkoxide is heated with an alkyl halide (SN2).
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
This method is particularly useful for preparing mixed ethers.

3. Grignard Reagents

Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
The majority of Grignard reactions fall in to two groups
(i) Addition of the Grignard reagent to a compound containing a multiple - bond group e.g.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(ii) Double decompsition with compounds containing an active hydrogen atom or a reactive halogen atom.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Important chemical synthesis by Grignard reagent
1. Hydrocarbons:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
2. Alcohols:
(a) Primary alcohols Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(b) Secondary alcohols Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(c) Tertiary alcohols:Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

3. Ethers: R1OCH2CI + R2MgX → R1OCH2R2 + MgXCI

4. Aldehydes:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

5. Ketones:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

6. Acids:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

7. Esters:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
8. Alkyl Cyanides:
RMgX + (CN)2 → RCN + Mg(CN)x

9. Primary amines :
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

4. Alkene & Alkyne

Electrophilic addition reactions :
Mechanism

Step 1 : Attack of the electrophile on k bond forms a carbocation.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Step 2 : Attack by a nucleophile gives the product of addition.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
e.g. (a) Addition of water
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

(b) Addition of hydrogen halides (where HX = HCI, HBr, HI)
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

5. Aromatic compounds

Electrophilic aromatic substitution :
(a) Bromination of Benzene :
Bromination follows the general mechanism for electrophilic aromatic substitution. Bromine itself is not sufficiently electrophilic to react with benzene, but a strong Lewis acid such as FeBr3 catalyzes the reaction.
Step 1 : Formation of a stronger electrophile.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Step 2 : Electrophilic attack and formation of the sigma complex.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Step : 2 Loss of a proton gives the products.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

(b) Nitration
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(c) Sulphonation: The electrophilic reagent, SO3, attacks the benzene ring to form the intermediate carbocation.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(d) Friedel Craft reaction : Alkylation mechanism
(i) Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(ii) Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
(iii) Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Acylation mechanism
Acylation of benzene may be brought about with acid chlorides or anhydrides in presence of Lewis acids.
Step 1 : Formation of an acylium ion.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Step 2 : electrophilic attack.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Step 3 : Loss of a proton. Complexation of the product.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
e.g. Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Note : Friedal - Crafts acylations are generally free from rearrangements and multiple substitution. They do not go on strongly deactivated rings.
e.g. Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chemical Reactions of Benzene :
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution : The reaction is second-order in which nucleophilic sbustitution occurs on benzene ring. It is generally accepted that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate o-complex, the benzenonium carbanion (or the pentadienyl anion), e.g.,
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev


6. Chemical Reactions of Phenol

Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Reimer-Tiemann reaction : The reaction is conversion of phenol to salicylaldehyde. The mechanism of the Reimer-Tiemann reaction is believed to involve the formation of dichloromethylene.

Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Kolbe Reaction : It is the industrial method of preparation of salicylic acid from phenol.
General reaction: Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Mechanism Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

7. Chemical reactions of aniline

Sandmyer’s Reaction : When a diazonium salt solution is run into a solution of cuprous halide dissolved in the corresponding halogen acid, the diazo-group is replaced by a halogen atom.
m - Chloronitrobenzene
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
p-Bromotoluene
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chemical Reactions of Aniline :
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

8. Aldehyde & ketone

Aldol condensation: Carbonyl compounds having acidic α - H shows this reaction in presence of dil. NaOH or dil. acid.
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Crossed aldol condensation
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Cannizzaro reaction :
Carbonyl compounds not having α-H shows following disproportion reaction
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Crossed Cannizzaro reaction:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Formation of hydrzones and azines
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Amides formation:
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Carbyl amine reaction
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Perkin reaction :
When benzaldehyde (or any other aromatic aldehyde) is heated with the anhydride of an aliphatic acid (containing two α-hydrogen atoms) in the presence of its sodium salt, condensation takes place to form a β-arylacrylic acid ; e.g., with acetic an hydride and sodium acetate, cinnamic acid is formed.

Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

9. Ester formation

General reaction Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Hydrolysis of ester Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev

10. Carboxylic Acids

Chemical Reactions of acids
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev
Chapter - 13 ORGANIC Class 12 Notes | EduRev 

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