The beginning of farming and herding:
(a) People probably observed several things
(b) By observing people became farmers
Persons who look after a herd of livestock or makes a living from keeping livestock, especially in open country. 'they are nomadic cattle herders by tradition'
Domestication of animals:
Domestication of plants:
(i) Those plants which have:
Each marks a site from where archaeologists have found evidence of early farmers and herders.
Archaeologists have found traces of huts or houses at some sites which shows that people have a stable life.
New stone tools & Polished jar
(a) Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir)
(i) Hut and pit houses were founded.
(ii) Indoor and outdoor cooking.
(iii) Stone tools of different sizes, polished and to give a fine cutting edge.
(iv) Earthen pot cooking, storing, decorative designs on it.
(v) Also got evidence of agriculture growth and weaving clothes.
(b) Mehrgarh (in present day-Pakistan)
(i) It is fertile plain around the bolan pass.
(ii) We can identify village development because of barley, wheat grown and sheep, goat reared.
(iii) Excavated in stratified manner. After hundreds of years surface rise and led to formation of mound.
Layers of mound
(1) Early layer → Animal bone. Example: Deer, Pig.
(2) Later layer → Sheep, Goat.
(3) Deep layer → Cattle Bones.
(iv) Square or rectangular houses: Each house had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage.
(v) Burial sites: the dead person was buried with goats, which were probably meant to serve as food in the next world.
Dead man with Goat
(c) Daojali Hading:
(i) Located near Brahmaputra valley. Close to route leading China and Myanmar.
(ii) Stone tools, mortar, pestles and agricultural evidence have been found.
(iii) Stone like jadeite (not available locally) may have been brought from china.
In TURKEY neolithic site CATAL HUYUK
(a) Established trade with
(i) Lint from Syria,
(ii) Cowries from the Red Sea,
(iii) Shells from the Mediterranean Sea — and used in the settlement.