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Agriculture Chapter Notes - Social Studies (SST) Class 10


India is an agriculturally important country as two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.

Types of Farming

There are various types of farming systems in different parts of India are:

Primitive Subsistence Farming

It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. It is done with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour. The farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

Primitive Subsistence FarmingPrimitive Subsistence Farming

Intensive Subsistence Farming

This type of farming is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production. This method is commonly done where less landholding is available.

Intensive Subsistence FarmingIntensive Subsistence Farming

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What is the characteristic feature of primitive subsistence farming?
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Commercial Farming

This type of farming is done using higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.
In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.

Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers. All the produce is used as a raw material in industries.

Commercial FarmingCommercial Farming

Cropping Pattern

India has three cropping seasons:
1. Rabi: Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.

Agriculture Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Rabi Crop 

2. Kharif: Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.

Kharif Crop Kharif Crop 

3. Zaid: In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Important crops grown are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.

Watermelon( A Zaid Crop)Watermelon
( A Zaid Crop)

Question for Chapter Notes: Agriculture
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What is the main characteristic of commercial farming?
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Major Crops

Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute, etc.


  • Staple food crop
  • Our country is the second-largest producer of rice in the world after China.
  • It is a kharif crop that requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • It is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.


  • The second most important cereal crop.
  • It is the main food crop, in the north and north-western part of the country.
  • This rabi crop requires a cool growing season with 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
  • Wheat growing regions are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the northwest and black soil region of the Deccan.


  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India.
  • These have very high nutritional value.

A Pearl Millet ( Bajra)A Pearl Millet ( Bajra)


  • It is a Kharif crop.
  • It requires a temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil.
  • It is used both as food and fodder.
  • Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.


  • India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
  • Major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
  • These need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
  • Major producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Food Crops other than Grains


  • It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.
  • It grows well in a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75 cm. and 100 cm.
  • Major producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

Oil Seeds

  • The oilseeds cover approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of the country.
  • These are used as cooking mediums as well as used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

Different OilseedsDifferent Oilseeds


  • Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture.
  • It is an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British.
  • It requires a warm and moist frost-free climate with frequent showers all through the year.
  • Major producing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Question for Chapter Notes: Agriculture
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Which crop is the staple food crop in India?
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  • Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality.
  • Its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Horticulture Crops

  • India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
  • India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables.

Horticulture CropsHorticulture Crops

Non-Food Crops


  • It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
  • It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and a temperature above 25°C.
  • It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.

Natural Rubber (Latex)Natural Rubber (Latex)

Fibre Crops

  • Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
  • The rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

Cotton ( A Fibre Crop)Cotton ( A Fibre Crop)


  • It is a kharif crop that grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.
  • It requires high temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
  • Major producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Cotton Cultivation Cotton Cultivation 


  • It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
  • Major jute-producing states West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.
  • It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.

A Jute CropA Jute Crop

Question for Chapter Notes: Agriculture
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Which region in India is known for the cultivation of coffee?
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Technological and Institutional Reforms

  • • More than 60 per cent of India's population depends on agriculture.
  • • After independence, major institutional reforms such as Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority.
  • In the 1960s and 1970s, technical reforms such as Green Revolution and White Revolution also introduced to improve the condition of agriculture.
  • In the 1980s and 1990s, various provisions for crop insurance, the establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
  • Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
  • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
  • Minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
The document Agriculture Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Agriculture Chapter Notes - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is the cropping pattern in agriculture?
Ans. The cropping pattern in agriculture refers to the practice of growing different crops in a particular area over a specific period of time. It involves the selection of crops based on factors such as climate, soil type, water availability, and market demand. The cropping pattern can vary from region to region and season to season.
2. What are non-food crops in agriculture?
Ans. Non-food crops in agriculture are crops that are not primarily grown for human consumption. These crops are often cultivated for other purposes such as industrial use, fuel production, or for producing raw materials for various industries. Examples of non-food crops include cotton, jute, tobacco, rubber, and oilseeds.
3. What are technological and institutional reforms in agriculture?
Ans. Technological and institutional reforms in agriculture refer to the adoption of new technology and changes in the institutional framework to improve agricultural practices and increase productivity. Technological reforms may include the use of advanced machinery, irrigation systems, improved seeds, and modern farming techniques. Institutional reforms focus on aspects such as land ownership, credit facilities, marketing infrastructure, and government policies to support farmers.
4. How does agriculture contribute to the national economy, employment, and output?
Ans. Agriculture contributes to the national economy by providing food, raw materials for industries, and export earnings. It is a major source of employment, especially in rural areas, where a significant portion of the population depends on farming for their livelihood. Agriculture also contributes to the overall output of the country's economy by sustaining the supply chain of food and other agricultural products.
5. What is the impact of globalization on agriculture?
Ans. Globalization has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture. On the positive side, it has opened up new markets for agricultural products, allowing farmers to access a wider consumer base and increase their income. Globalization has also facilitated the exchange of knowledge and technology, enabling farmers to adopt more efficient and sustainable agricultural practices. However, globalization has also led to increased competition, price volatility, and the dominance of multinational corporations in the agricultural sector, which can negatively affect small-scale farmers and local food systems.
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