Chapter Notes Chapter - 12. Migration, Class 12, Geography, | EduRev Notes

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes Chapter - 12. Migration, Class 12, Geography, | EduRev Notes

The document Chapter Notes Chapter - 12. Migration, Class 12, Geography, | EduRev Notes is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12).
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GIST: 

1. It was noted in first census 1881
2. Based on place of birth
3. In 1961 two components introduced a. place of birth b. duration
4. In 1971 place of last residence and duration in the place of enumeration is added in1981
5. Place of birth: if the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration –life time migrant
6. Place of resident: if the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration-known by last residence

STREAMS OF MIGRATION
1. Rural to urban, 2 rural to rural 3.urban to rural 4.urban to urban
2. During 2001 315 million migrants- based on last residence
3. 98 million changed their place of residence in the last ten years
4. the stream was dominated by female migrants
5. Female predominate the streams of short distance rural to rural migration
6. Male domination in rural to urban
7. 96% migrated from neighboring countries to India

SPATIAL VARIATION 

1.migrants from UP BIHAR came to MS, DELHI, GUJ, HAR
2.MS stands first in immigration
3. Greater Mumbai received highest no. of migrants

CAUSED OF MIGRATION 

1. PUSH FACTORS
2. PULL FACTORS

PUSH FACTORS; Migrate from rural to urban due to poverty, high pop. pressure on land , lack of basic facilities, flood , drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake, wars local conflicts
 PULL FACTORS: better opportunities, presence of regular work, higher wages, higher education, health facilities, source of entertainment
⇒ Marriage migration is only 2% in the country

CONSEUENCES OF MIGRATION
1. Uneven distribution of population over the space
2. Benefit both the places of migration

ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
1. Major benefit is remittance sent by migrants
2. It is one of the source of foreign exchange
3. In 2002 it was 11 billion dollars
4. PU, KER,T.N RECEIVE SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT
5. Remittance used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriage, child education, agricultural inputs, construction of house.
6. People migrate form UP ORI MP to PUN,HAR is high %

DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES
1. Redistribution of population
2. Pop. Increases in cities
3. Age and skill pop. Migrate from rural to cities
4. Imbalance in age sex composition

SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES
1. Migrants act as agents of social change
2. New technology, family planning, girl‟s education are diffused
3. Intermixing of different cultures
4. It is positive change for national integrity but leads to unanimity
5. It creates social vacuum and sense of dejection
6. People may fall in antisocial activities

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
1. Pressure on existing facilities
2. Formation of slums shanty colonies
3. Over exploitation natural resources leads to pollution
4. Depletion of ground water
5. Sewage disposal became major problem

OTHERS
1. Change in women status
2. Male selective migration in rural areas
3. Women migration leads to autonomy but causes vulnerability to problems
4. Loss of skilled persons in rural areas

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