Chapter Notes - Human Development, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

Geography Class 12

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Human Development, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

The document Chapter Notes - Human Development, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 12.
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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

“ Human development is a process of enlarging the range of peoples choices, increasing their opportunities for education health care income and empowerment and covering the full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic social and political freedom” HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT : „progressive democratization and increasing empowerment of people are seen as the minimum conditions for human development‟

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

1. India ranked 127 among 172 countries
2. HDI value is 0.602
3. Fall in medium group among the nations
4. Low score is due to

HISTORICAL FACTORS

Colonization, imperialism, neo imperialism,

SOCIO CULTURAL FACTORS 

Human rights violation, social discrimination, crimes, terrorism, war

POLITICL FACTORS 

Nature of state , form of government, level of empowerment,

IDICATORS OF ECONOMIC ATTAINMENTS
1. Access to all resources by all the people
2. GDP( RS.3200 THOUSAND crore) , per capita income(Rs 20,8130 are the units to measure HDI
3. Prevalence of poverty , deprivation, malnutrition various types of prejudices
4. Large scale regional disparities
5. MS,PUN,HAR GUJ , DEL, have high per capita income
6. Low per capita income is found in UP BI ORI MP AS J&K

INDICATORS OF HEALTHY LIFE
1. Long life without ailment is called longevity
2. Availability of pre, post health care facilities decrease the death rate
3. Old age health care, adequate nutrition and safety of individual are important measures for health
4. Death rate decreased from 25.1 / 1000 to 8.1 /1000
5. IMR decreased from 148 to 70
6. Life expectancy increased from 37.1 years to 65.3 years
7. Decreased birth rate from 40.8 to 26.1
8. Decline in sex ratio in rural areas is alarming

INDICATORS OF SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT
1. Access to knowledge about society and environment
2. Literacy rate is the indicator of social development
3. Literacy rate increased to65.4%
4. Literacy rate is Higher than the national average in many states
5. Kerala has highest and Bihar has lowest literacy

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN INDIA
1. Kerala with 0.638 placed on the top
2. Orissa with 0.404 placed at the bottom
3. Due to highest sex ratio and literacy Kerala place on the top
4. Due low sex ratio, per-capita income, and low literacy Orissa kept at the bottom

REASONS FOR LOW HDI
1. LOW LITERACY RATE
2. LOW ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
3. REGIONAL DISPARTITIES OF BRITISH CONTINUED

POPULATION ENVIORNMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Social inequalities, discriminations deprivations displacement of people, abuse human rights cause low HDI
2. Methods to increase the HDI
3. Sustainable development
4. Got. Expenditure on public health and education
5. Increase social and political freedom

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