MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION
- ‘Mass’ media they reach mass audiences – (very large numbers of people)
- Mass media include a wide variety of forms, including television, newspapers, films, magazines, radio, advertisements, video games and CDs.
2. Mass media during colonial period.
- The growth of Indian nationalism was closely linked to its struggle against colonialism.
- It emerged in the wake of the institutional changes brought about by British rule in India.
- Anti colonial public opinion was nurtured and channelised by the nationalist press, which was vocal in its opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial state.
- This led the colonial government to clamp down on the nationalist press and impose censorship for instance during the Ilbert Bill agitation in 1883.
- Association with the national movement led some of the nationalist newspapers like Kesari (Marathi), Mathrubhumi (Malayalam), Amrita Bazar Patrika (English) to suffer the displeasure of the colonial state.
- But that did not prevent them from advocating the nationalist cause and demand an end to colonial rule.
3. Beginning of modern mass media
- The first modern mass media institution began with the development of the printing press.
- This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in 1440 Its effects were
- With the Industrial Revolution, the print industry also grew newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience.
- People across the country began to feel connected and developed a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’–growth of nationalism.
4. Mass media during colonial period.
- Anti colonial public opinion was nurtured and channelised by the nationalist press, vocal in its opposition to the oppressive measures of the colonial state.
- Imposed censorship, Eg. Ilbert Bill agitation in 1883.
- nationalist newspapers like Kesari (Marathi), Mathrubhumi (Malayalam), Amrita Bazar Patriks (English)
- advocating the nationalist cause and demand an end to colonial rule.
5. Mass media during British period.
- During British rule mass media comprised a range of newspapers and magazines, films and radio
- Radio was wholly owned by the state.
- circulation as news and information was read and spread by word of mouth (from commercial and administrative hubs like markets and trading centres as well as courts and towns.)
6. A. MASS MEDIA IN INDEPENDENT INDIA
- The media expected to spread the spirit of self-reliance and national development among the people.
- The media seen as a means to inform the people of the various developmental efforts.
- to fight against oppressive social practices like untouchability, child marriages, and ostracism of widows
- formulate public opinion.
- It provide a platform for voicing grievances.
- promotion of national scientific ethos.
- At the time of independence there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience.
- an active partner in the development of the newly free India. AIR’s programmes consisted mainly of news, current affairs, and discussions on development.
- Vividh Bharati, a channel for entertainment broadcasting Hindi film songs
- The transistor revolution in the 1960s made the radio more accessible
- In 2000 around 110 million households were listening to radio broadcasts in 24 languages. More than 1/3rd of them were rural households.
- Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development as early as 1959.
- Later the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) broadcasted directly to community viewers in the rural areas
- Television stations were set up under Doordarshan in 4 cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar and Amritsar) by 1975. Three more stations in Kolkata, Chennai and Jalandhar
- As programmes become commercialized, there was a shift in target audience.
- Entertainment programmes grew and were directed to the urban consuming class
- The advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi
D. PRINT MEDIA.
- After independence, the print media helped in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
- The greatest challenge that the media faced was, the declaration Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media.
7. GLOBALISATION AND THE MEDIA
A. PRINT MEDIA
- There has been an amazing growth in the circulation of newspapers, especially in the Indian Language newspaper because of––
- the rise in the number of literate people who migrate to cities.
- the needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian language newspapers cater to those needs such as Malayala Manorama and the Eenadu
- Indian language newspapers having adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets
- Entry of glossy magazines into me market
- In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers, especially English language newspapers have reduced prices, brought out editions from multiple centres and increased dependence on the sponsors of advertisements.
- New Marketing strategies have been adopted such as door-to-door surveys, research, consumer contact programmes, increased sales of colour supplements, glossy finish etc.
- In 1991 there was one state controlled TV channel Doordarshan in India but by 1998 it increased to almost 70 channels. Privately run satellite channels have multiplied.
- There has been a manifold increase in viewership
- There has been an expansion in the cable television industry. Video viewing at home and in community-based parlours increased rapidly.
- The coming in of transnational television companies like Star TV, MTV, Channel [V], Sony
- Foreign network has introduced regional language channels, such as Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi and Gujarati.
- Most television channels telecast throughout the day, 27x7
- Television has fostered public debate.
- There are a large number of reality shows, talk shows Bollywood shows, family soaps, interactive shows, game shows and comedy shows.
- Globalisation led to the opening up of govt. controlled broadcasting system
- Variety of programmes like sports, cultural, etc became popular among the masses.
- The advent of privately owned FM radio stations provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio.
- Most of the FM channel belong to media conglomerates. Like ‘Radio Mirchi belongs to the Times of India group, Red FM is owned by Living Media and Radio City by the Star Network
- Radio is now used as an active medium of communication to inspire the youth–– shown in the two films ‘Rang de Basanti’ and Lage Raho Munna bhai’
8. Mass media is bridging the gap between rural and urban areas by:-
- Bringing images of urban life styles and patterns of consumption into the rural areas.
- Urban norms and standards are becoming well known even in the remote villages creating new desires and aspirations for consumtptions.
Effects are: -
- Increase in non-farm rural occupations like transport services, business enterprises etc.
- If close to urban areas may travel daily to the nearest urban centre to work while staying in the village.
- A combination of information and entertainment to sustain the interest of the reader.
- wide coverage of different issues to appeal to the readers across all age groups.
- There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities.
- The Indian language newspapers cater ‘to the needs of the readers in the small towns and villages and also of the readers from that of the cities.
- The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies
- They have also brought out supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets, glossy papers, advertisement (property, matrimonial) etc.
- Effective marketing strategies have helped in the growth of Indian language newspapers.
- It is reasonably priced.