|Table of contents|
|French Revolution (1789)|
|Europe in the mid-18th Century|
|Congress of Vienna (1815)|
|Romanticism as part of cultural movement|
|The Revolution of the Liberals (1848)|
|The making of Germany and Italy|
|Visualizing the Nation|
Frederic Sorrieu: He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.
Frederic Sorrieu - Universal Democratic and Social Republic
The Correct Option is C - Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist. He was born in the year 1807 in Foix, France, and he died in the year 1877 in Paris, France.
- Sorrieu was well-known for producing a series of four prints in the mid-19th century that envisioned a unified world composed of 'Democratic and Social Republics'.
- As a French artist, he was influenced by the events and political climate of his time, particularly the French Revolution and the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
- His most famous artworks depict the nations of the world, personified as maidens, following the French goddess of Liberty.
- Therefore, Frederic Sorrieu was not German, Swiss or American, but a French artist who made significant contributions to the world of art and political symbolism.
The Correct Option is C
- Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist. He was born in the year 1807 in Foix, France, and he died in the year 1877 in Paris, France.
Nineteenth-Century: Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation-states.
Nationalism: A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one's country are the basic attributes of nationalism.
Nation State: A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.
Modern State: A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.
Absolutist Government: A system of government wherein limitless powers is vested in a single person or body. It is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not answerable to anybody.
There were no Nation States as the Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common identity or culture.
Example: The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised French, Italian and German-speaking people.
Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely:
1. Aristocracy: The landowning class. Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically. Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society. Families were connected through marriage.
2. Peasantry: Tenants and small landowners who worked as serfs. Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords.
The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and the rise of a commercial class of traders. Consequently, the new conscious, educated, liberal middle class emerged and popularized nationalism and stood for the abolition of aristocracy.
It Means Individual freedom, Equality before the law, Government by consent, Freedom of markets, Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Liberalism became the main concern in Europe after the French Revolution because:
(a) Universal Adult Suffrage was not granted to the people by the Napoleonic Code.
(b) Men without property and women were denied the right to vote.
(c) Women were made subject to the authority of men.
(d) Markets were not free as the 39 confederacies of France had their own laws which posed problems for the free movement of goods.
(e) There were no standard weights and measures and no fixed rates of customs duties, which greatly affected the trade.
Stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes introduced by Napoleon. Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo.
The conservative regimes:
For drawing a new settlement for Europe and restoring the monarchies that were overthrown by Napoleon for creation of a new conservative order.
The salient features of the Treaty were as follows:
The Correct Option is D
- Historical Context
- The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors that took place from 1814 to 1815. Its purpose was to settle issues and redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France. The main players were the "Great Powers" of Europe, which included Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
- Exclusion of Switzerland
- Switzerland, being a small, landlocked country in Central Europe, did not attend the Congress of Vienna. This is not to say it was completely disregarded; in fact, the Congress recognized Switzerland as a neutral state, a status it retains to this day. However, it was not actively involved in the discussions and decision-making processes of the Congress.
- Reasons for Exclusion
- The main reason for Switzerland's exclusion was its relative lack of power and influence compared to the major European players. The Congress was primarily concerned with the balance of power among the "Great Powers," ensuring that no single nation could become dangerously dominant as France had under Napoleon. As such, smaller countries like Switzerland were not included in the negotiations.
- Another reason for Switzerland's exclusion is its longstanding tradition of neutrality. Since the early 16th century, Switzerland has maintained a policy of armed neutrality, meaning it does not participate in foreign wars. This policy would have made it unsuitable for the power-balancing act of the Congress of Vienna.
- Aftermath of the Congress for Switzerland
- Despite its absence, the Congress of Vienna had significant impacts on Switzerland. The Congress formally recognized Switzerland's perpetual neutrality, which has shaped the country's international relations to this day. The Swiss Confederation was also expanded to include three additional cantons.
- This information is based on historical records and can be further explored on EduRev and other educational platforms.
The Correct Option is D
The Revolutionaries uphold the idea of liberalism and were against the conservative regimes of the 19th Century.
Many secret societies were formed whose main aims were:
The Correct Option is C
The Napoleonic Code, also known as the Civil Code of the French, was a fundamental change in the French legal system established by Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolution. It was implemented in regions under his control. Below are the details:
The Correct Option is C
|1. What were the main causes of the French Revolution in 1789?|
|2. How did Napoleon rise to power and what were the key events of his reign?|
|3. What were the main goals and outcomes of the Congress of Vienna in 1815?|
|4. How did liberal nationalism and conservatism influence Europe in the mid-18th century?|
|5. What were the main characteristics and impact of Romanticism as a cultural movement in Europe?|