Chronology of Kings
The Sultanate of Delhi (1206-1526) had five ruling dynasties:
(i) The Ilbari, 1206-90;
(ii) The Khalji, 1206-90;
(iii) The Tughlaq, 1320-1413;
(iv) The Saiyid, 1414-51; and
(v) The Lodis 1451-1526.
Of these five dynasties the first three were of Turkish origin and the Lodis were Afghans.
Chronology of Kings
(i) Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-10);
(ii) Aram Shah (for sometime, defeated and deposed by Iltutmish);
(iii) Iltutmish (1210-36);
(iv) Razia (1236-40)
(v) Bahram Shah (1240-42);
(vi) Alauddin Masud Shah (1242-46);
(vii) Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-66);
(viii) Balban (1266-86);
(i) Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji (1290-96);
(ii) Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316);
(iii) Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Khalji (1316-20).
(i) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25);
(ii) Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51);
(iii) Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88);
(iv) Ghiasuddin Tughlaq II;
(v) Abu Bakr;
(vi) Muhammad Shah;
(vii) Alaudin Sikandar Shah (1388-1394)
(viii) Nasiruddin Mahmud (1394-1412).
(i) Khizr Khan (1414-1421);
(ii) Mubarak Shah (1421-33);
(iii) Alauddin Alam Shah (1433-51).
(i) Bahlol Lodi (1451-89);
(ii) Sikandar Shah (1489-1517);
(iii) Ibrahim Lodi (1517-26).
Information about the prominent rulers
(A) Qutbuddin Aibak:
(i) He was a turk of the Aibak tribe.
(ii) He was a slave and later deputy of Muhammad Gori in India.
(iii) He began his reign with the modest title
(iv) His capitals were Lahore initially, and later Delhi.
(v) Laid the foundation of Qutb Minar, which was later completed by Iltutmish.
(vi) Died of a sudden fall from a horse at Lahore while playing chaugan.
Points To Be Remembered
- Firdausi was the court poet of Mahmud of Ghazni.
- "Sovereignty is not conferred upon every man but is placed on the elect".
- The turks used geometrical and floral designs, combining them with panels of inscriptions containing verses from the Quran.
- The coming of the Khaljis to power was more than a dynastic change.
- Their ascendancy is known as the Khalji revolution, because it marked the end of monu-polisation of power by the Turkish nobility and racial dictatorship.
(i) Slave as well as son-in-law of Aibak.
(ii) At the time of Qutbuddin’s death, he was the governor of Badaun.
(iii) By his diplomatic skill he saved his infant kingdom from the fury of the Mongol invasion.
(iv) Received a deed of investiture from the Abassid Caliph of Baghdad.
(v) He created a governing class or nobility, known as Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of forty).
(vi) He divided his empire into numerous big and small iqtas.
(vii) He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital.
(C) Razia Sultan:
(i) The only woman ruler of the Delhi Sultanate.
(ii) The only instance of a daughter being preferred to sons (Iltutmish himself had nominated her as his successor).
(i) The first Delhi Sultan to break the power of the Turkish nobles (known as the Chahalgani or the ‘Forty’).
(ii) He increased the emoluments of the troops and frequent military exercises were held with a view to keeping the army vigilant and active.
(iii) He ordered the separation of the military department from the finance department.
(iv) He was the first sultan of Delhi to discuss at length his views about kingship.
(v) Introduced new customs, such as ‘Sijda’ (Prostration) and ‘Paibos’ (kissing the Sultan’s feet)
Points To Be Remembered
- During plunder of the rich port of Cambay, Ala-ud-din's commander Nusarat Khan acquired a Hindu turned Muslim slave Kafur (also known as hazardinari) who later on rose to become a great military general and the malik naib of Ala-ud-din.
- During the first four years of Ala-ud-din's reign, the Mongol invaded the sultanate as many as six times and even plundered Delhi.
- Ala-ud-din's motives for his southern expeditions were to secure the immense wealth.
- One of the most important events of Jalaluddin's reign was the invasion of Devagiri, the capital of the Yadava kingdom in the Deccan, by Ali Gurshap (later Sultan Ala-ud-din Khalji), the nephew and son-in-law of the Sultan, and Governor of Kara.
(E) Ala-ud-din Khalji:
(a) His conquests:
Gujarat, Ranthambhor, Chittor and other Rajput states, Malwa, Devagiri, Warangal etc. Conquest of Deccan under Malik Kafur. [Malik Kafur who was originally a Hindu was captured and converted into Islam during the conquest of Gujarat].
(b) Military reforms:
(i) Abolition of the ‘Iqtas’ of the royal troopers and the payment of their salaries in cash.
(ii) Introduction of ‘Dagh’ (branding of horses) and ‘Chehra’ (descriptive will of soldiers)
(iii) Regular muster of the army.
(c) Economic reforms:
(i) Increase of land revenue to 50% of the gross produce.
(ii) Resumption of several types of land-grants such as inam, waqf etc.
(iii) Appropriation of 4/5th share of the war booty to the states, leaving only 1/5 th to the soldiers.
(iv) Creation of a new department, viz, Diwan-i-Mustakharaj’ to enquire into the revenue arears and to collect them.
(v) Establishment of separate markets for food-grains cloth, horses, fruits etc. and put all that under strict regulations.
Points To Be Remembered
- Commercial horticulture was popularised by Firuz Shah Tughlaq
- Iqta was introduced to set administrative precedents.
- The first Sultan who introduced a purely Arabic coinage and adopted standard coins, the silver Tanka was Iltutmish.
- Balban asserted “Kingship knows no Kinship.”
- At the time of the Arab conquest of Sind, the Caliphate was headed by Khalifa Walid of Umayyad dynasty.
- Muhammad-bin-Qasim, the person who was successful in conquering Sind in 711-12 A.D. was the son-in-law of Hajjaj.
- In 715 A.D. Muhammad-bin-Qasim was recalled from India and executed by the New Khalifa, Sulaiman.
- Firuz Tughlaq ordered the inclusion of the names of all the previous Delhi Sultans, except that of Aibak, in the Khutba.
- “Sovereignty is not conferred upon every man but is placed on the elect”. These words are ascribed to Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Alauddin Khilji resumed several types of land grants such as Inams, Waqfs, etc.
- Dahar, the Hindu ruler of Sind, was defeated and deposed by the Arab invaders.
(i) Transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, its failure and return to Delhi.
(ii) Introduction of token currency; its failure and withdrawal.
(iii) Establishment of a separate department for agriculture viz Diwan-i-Kohi.
(iv) Enhancement of the land revenue to 50% in the Doab area and the severe opposition to it.
(v) Qublai Khan of China and Gai Khatu of Iran successfully introduced token currency before Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
(G) Firuz Tughlaq:
(i) Reversed the centralising and radical policies of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.
(ii) Liberal attitude towards the nobility and the Ulema.
(iii) Set up a separate department of public works and looked after the welfare of the people.
(iv) Collected a large numbers of slaves for economic as well as political reasons.
(H) Sikander Lodi:
(i) His original name was Nizam Khan.
(ii) Conquered and annexed Bihar.
(iii) Shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra and beautified the new capital.