Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them:
Q.1. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement unfold in the cities and towns of India?
(i) The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
(ii) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and college.
(iii) Many teachers resigned.
(iv) Lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(v) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
(vi) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(vii) Any other relevant point.
Q.2. Why is tourism considered as a trade?
(i) Foreign tourist’s arrival in the country contributes to foreign exchange.
(ii) Many people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
(iii) Tourism provides support to local handicrafts.
(iv) Tourists visit India for medical tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism and business tourism.
(v) Any other relevant point.
Q.3. Differentiate between one party and two party system.
One Party System
(i) Countries where only one party is allowed to control and run the government are called one party system.
(ii) E.g., In China only Communist Party is allowed to rule.
(iii) Any other relevant point.
Two Party System
(i) Countries where only two main parties contest elections are called Two Party System.
(ii) The United States of America and United Kingdom are examples of Two Party System.
(iii) Any other relevant point.
Q.4. State the role of the Reserve Bank of India.
(i) In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the Central Government.
(ii) The RBI supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans.
(iii) The RBI monitors the banks in actually maintaining cash balance.
(iv) The RBI sees that the banks give loans not just to profit-making businesses and traders but also to small cultivators.
(v) Any other relevant point.
Q.5. Read the data in the table given below and answer the questions that follows:
(5.1) Compare the 2015-2016 and 2019-2020 data and give any one reason for the reduction of production of steel in 2019-2020.
(5.2) Why is production and consumption of steel considered as an index of a country’s development?
(5.1) (i) High costs.
(ii) Limited availability of coking coal.
(iii) Lower productivity of labour.
(iv) Irregular supply of energy.
(v) Any other relevant point.
(5.2) (i) The steel products are used as a raw material in different industries.
(ii) It is required for export.
(iii) It provides machinery for ensuring country ’s growth.
(iv) Any other relevant point.
Q.6. Describe any three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of industries in the 18th century India.
Three conditions that were favourable for the continuing growth of industries in the 18th century India are:
(i) India abounds in coal and iron ore deposits: India had huge reserves of coal and iron ore deposits making it possible to set up the industries.
(ii) Number of perennial rivers: This made easy for foreign companies to reach India.
(iii) Abundant raw-materials: Abundant availability of raw materials allowed large scale production.
(iv) Vast network of Roads and Railways: Transport facilities helped in reaching to different parts of the country.
(v) Big Market: The availability of huge market led to the growth of industries.
Q.7. Nearly every one of the state parties wants to get an opportunity to be a part of one or the other national level coalition.” Support the statement with proper arguments.
State parties seeking national level coalition:
Before the general elections of 2014, in three general Elections, no national party was able to secure on its own a majority in Lok Sabha. As a result, the national parties were compelled to form alliances with state or regional parties. Since 1996, nearly every one of the state parties has got an opportunity to be a part of one or the other national level coalition government.
This has contributed to the strengthening of Federalism and Democracy.
Q.8. “The credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged.” Support the statement with arguments.
Barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent in India since 1991. Justify the statement.
Credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged because:
(i) Most loans from informal lenders carry a very high interest rate and do little to increase the income of the borrowers.
(ii) The poor households have to pay a large amount for borrowing.
(iii) 85% of the loans taken by poor households in the urban areas are from informal sources.
(iv) Higher cost of borrowing means a larger part of the earnings of the borrowers is used to repay the loan.
(v) There is no organization that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector.
Removal of barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment :
(i) Barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were partially removed.
(ii) goods could be imported and exported easily.
(iii) Foreign companies could setup factories and offices here.
(iv) Indian producers got opportunities to compete with producers around the globe.
Q.9. “Political parties are rightly called the government in disguise.” Justify the statement in reference to democratic politics by giving five arguments.
Political parties perform many crucial functions in democracy.
(i) It contest elections parties choose candidates to contest elections. The process of choosing candidates varies, e.g., in the USA, party members choose the candidates while in India top party leaders choose.
(ii) It puts forward policies and programmes and people choose them. They pile up similar opinions into a major stances that the parties support usually on the line of the ruling.
(iii) They make laws. Legislature makes laws since the majority of the members are from a party, they go by the lines parties take. Moreover, they train and make people (party members) leaders who constitutes the executive.
(iv) Parties form and run governments. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then ministers to run government in the way they want.
(v) They form oppositions. They play their role by voicing different views and criticising government for its failures or wrong policies. They also mobilise opposition to the government.
Q.10. How are deposits with the bank beneficial for individual as well as for the nation? Explain with examples.
Explain any five facilities available in the special economic zones developed by the Central and State Governments to attract foreign investment.
The deposits with banks are beneficial for the individual as well as for the nation:
(i) Banks accept deposit and also pay an amount as interest and in this way people earn money.
(ii) People’s money is safe with banks.
(iii) It is easy for individuals to get credit who have savings and current account in the banks.
(iv) Poor people who are engaged in production need credit.
(v) Credit provided by the banks for government projects helps in the development of the nation.
(vi) Banks provide loans for the promotion of International trade.
(vii) Development of infrastructure is undertaken with the loans provided by the banks.
Five facilities available in the Special Economic ones (SEZs) by the central and state governments to attract foreign investment are:
(i) Duty free import and domestic procurement of goods for the development, operation and maintenance of the company.
(ii) 100 percent income tax exemption on export income for first five years, 50 percent for five years thereafter, and 50 percent of the export profit reinvested in the business for the next five years.
(iii) Exemption from the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and levies imposed by state government. Supplies to SEZs are zero rated under the IGST Act, 2017, meaning they are not taxed.
(iv) External commercial borrowing (ECB) is allowed up to US$500 million a year without restriction. For developers of an SEZ, the ECB channel may be availed after receiving government approval, and only for providing infrastructure facilities in the zone. However, ECB will not be permissible for development of integrated township and commercial real estate within the SEZ.
(v) Permission to manufacture products directly, as long as the goods you are producing fall within a sector which allows 100 percent FDI.
Q.11. Read the given text and answer the following questions:
In the countryside, rich peasant communities – like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand. And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So, when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate.
The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords. As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns in most places. So, the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
(11.1) Who led the Peasant's Movement in Awadh?
(11.2) Why did the rich peasants refused to participate in Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932?
(11.3) Who were Jats and Patidars?
(11.1) Baba Ramchandra.
(11.2) These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organising their communities and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programmes. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So, when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participate.
(11.3) The Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were rich peasant communities.
Q.12. Read the given text and answer the following questions:
The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. While local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages, state level trade is carried between two or more states. Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country. As the resources are space bound, no country can survive without international trade. Export and import are the components of trade. The balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import. When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. On the contrary, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.
India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the world, the commodities exported from India to other countries include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc.
The commodities imported to India include petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
(12.1) What are the components of the trade? Which is consider the economic barometer of a country?
(12.2) What are the things imported to India?
(12.3) What is international trade?
(12.1) Export and import are the components of trade. The balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import. When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. On the contrary, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.
Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
(12.2) The commodities imported to India include petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products.
(12.3) Trade between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes.
Map Skill Based Question
Q.13. (13.1) On the given outline Political Map of India, identify the place marked as A with the help of following information and write its correct name on the line marked near it.
(A) Indian National Congress session at this place in 1927.
13.2 On the same given map of India, locate the following:
(I) Tarapur Nuclear Power Plant
Indore Cotton Textile Industry.
(II) Mumbai International Airport
(13.1) (A) Madras