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Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - I

Q1: What are the processes of population change or growth? Describe them.
Ans:

  • There are three main processes of change of population – birth rates, death rates and migration. The natural increase in population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.
  • Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rate have always been higher than death rates.
  • Death rates is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.
  • Migration is an important component of population growth. It can be internal or international. Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
  • Migration changes are not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition. In India, the rural urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns.


Q2: “Distribution of population is uneven in India”. Describe the factors responsible for it.
Ans:

Uneven population distribution is characterised by massive difference in the density of population across various geographical locations. There is extremely high density of population at some places such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, etc. Whereas the state of Arunachal Pradesh has very low population density. Hence, there is uneven distribution of population in India. The factors responsible for it, are given below:

  • Relief: Mountains have rugged surface and covered with thick forests along with harsh climate are not at all suitable for human habitation. However, the Northern plains provide suitable climate, level hand, fertile soil along with knit transport system. Hence, this region is densely populated.
  • Climate: The western part of Rajasthan is sparsely populated because of extreme climatic condition. The range of temperature is very high and rainfall is low here. So, it is not suitable for human habitation. Mountainous regions are also not suitable for human habitation because of too much cold climate.
  • Cities like Patna, Kanpur, New Delhi, Kolkata are densely populated because they are located at river banks. Needless to say that rivers provide with drinking water, water for irrigation, helping navigation and making land fertile by depositing silt.
  • Industries provide better economic support for the Indian masses. So, big towns like Bengaluru, Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Kanpur, Mumbai, etc. are hub of industries which attract people in great numbers. But cities devoid of industries are thinly populated.
  • The regions which are well-connected by means of roadways, railways and waterways are densely populated. An efficient transport system has a remarkable impact upon population movement and distribution.


Q3: Mention three facts revealed by the 2011 census data.
Ans:

Three facts revealed by the 2001 census data are:

  • Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 199 million people is the most populous state of India.
  • Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 percent of the country’s population,
  • On the other hand, the Himalayan state Sikkim has a population of just about 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64,429 people.
  • Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states—Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.


Q4: The substantial improvement in the health conditions of the Indian population is the result of many factors. What are these factors?
Ans:

Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population. The factors responsible for this are given below:

  • Improvement in public health.
  • Prevention of infectious diseases.
  • Application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.


Q5: What did the National Population policy 2000 do for the adolescent population of India?
Ans:

The National Population Policy 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention:

  • The policy gave much importance to nutritional requirements of the adolescents.
  • The policy called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child¬bearing, and education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex.
  • It has made contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
  • It has strengthened legal measures to prevent child marriage.


Q6: Write a note on India’s population distribution by density.
Ans: 
Population density provides a better picture of the uneven distribution. Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per sq. km. Densities vary from 1,102 persons per sq. km in Bihar to only 17 persons per sq. km in Arunachal Pradesh.

Q7: Look at the following table carefully. What does it indicate? What can be done to turn the sex ratio in favour of females? The Magnitude and Rate of India’s Population Growth
Ans: 
The above table shows that the sex ratio in India has always remained unfavourable to females. In 1951, the country had 946 females per 1000 males. The number steadily went down after every decade and in 2011 there were 940 females per 1000 males. This trend indicates the patriarchal mind-set of the people of India. In order to turn the sex ratio in favour of females, we need to spread education in each and every part of the country. Only education can do miracle.

Q8: Why is the health situation still in matter of major concern for India?
Ans:

No doubt considerable achievements have been made in the health conditions of the Indian population, it is still a matter of major concern. The reasons are given below:

  • The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition afflicts a large percentage of our population.
  • Safe drinking water and basic sanitation amenities are available to only one-third of the rural population.
  • There are many places in India which do not have adequate number of doctors and nurses. The hospitals too are in bad condition.


Q9: Which regions a India have moderate population densities and which regions have high to very high population densities? Why?
Ans:

  • Assam and most of the peninsular states have moderate population densities. Hilly, deserted and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced population densities in these areas.
  • The northern plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.
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