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Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 3 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT PDF Download

Question 15: The Indians got to zero in two stages. First they overcame the problem of denoting empty spaces in place-value notation by drawing a circle around the space where there was a "missing" entry. This much the Babylonians had done. The circle gave rise to the present-day symbol 0 for zero. The second step was to regard that extra symbol just like the other nine. This meant developing the rules for doing arithmetic using this additional symbol along with all the others. This second step – changing the underlying conception so that the rules of arithmetic operated not on the numbers themselves but on symbols for the numbers – was the key. 
A. Indeed, our sense of numbers depends on the symbols, and we cannot divorce the symbols from the numbers they represent.
B. Over time, it led to a change in the conception of numbers to a more abstract one that included zero.
C. Everything becomes much clearer when there is a special symbol to mark a space with no value.
D. A remarkable thing about this number system is that using just the ten digits from 0 to 9, we can represent any of the infinitely many positive whole numbers.
Answer: Over time, it led to a change in the conception of numbers to a more abstract one that included zero.
Explanation:
The paragraph given explains how the Indians “got to zero”. The first step was denoting the empty place values in numbers with a circle. This later became the symbol 0. The second step, according to the paragraph, was the key. This involved treating the the extra symbol zero just like the other symbols for numbers such as 1, 2, 3 etc., and developing rules for doing arithmetic using zero as with the other numbers. The penultimate line explains how this involved applying the rules of arithmetic not on the numbers themselves (which would have excluded zero) but on the symbols for the numbers (which included zero).
Now let us look at the options to see which one completes the paragraph best:
Option A. Indeed, our sense of numbers depends on the symbols, and we cannot divorce the symbols from the numbers they represent. 

This line talks of “our sense of numbers” and how we think of them in terms of their symbols. This is not the right choice to complete the paragraph given, which is about how the concept of zero evolved.
Option B. Over time, it led to a change in the conception of numbers to a more abstract one that included zero.
The paragraph details the two-step process by which Indians got to zero. The penultimate sentence explains the key idea that changed the way the rules of arithmetic were applied. Option B, which talks of how this “led to a change in the conception of numbers to a more abstract one that included zero” seems to be a good choice to complete the paragraph.
Option C. Everything becomes much clearer when there is a special symbol to mark a space with no value.
The use of a circle to mark empty spaces in place value was discussed as step one towards zero in the paragraph. The paragraph then moves on to the next idea about how the rules of arithmetic were applied to zero. It does not make sense to conclude the paragraph by stating a fact that was already noted earlier. So we rule out option C.
Option D. A remarkable thing about this number system is that using just the ten digits from 0 to 9, we can represent any of the infinitely many positive whole numbers.
This is a new, related idea about the number system that included zero and its remarkable ability to represent infinitely many positive whole numbers. However, the given paragraph is about how the concept of zero evolved. Option D does not not fit in at the end of this paragraph.
So, of the given choices, B is the best one to complete the paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B
Choice B is the correct answer.

Question 16: The true essence of a writer’s voice lies far beneath the surface. It is not merely a matter of grammar and word choice. It is the writer's craving to connect. It is less craft and more courage – less ink and more blood. It is not only how the writer tells his story; it is the story he chooses tell. The story he must tell. It is the reason he writes.
A. It reveals itself in details the eye doesn't easily take in— in some unexpected hesitation or cunning adverb or barely audible inflection that makes you sit up and take notice.
B. And contrary to popular belief, a writer’s voice is learnt more than it’s “found” or “discovered.”
C. It is the fiery truth that burns in his heart until it becomes unbearable to wait even a single moment longer before putting pen to paper or fingertips to keyboard.
D. It is the way an author expresses personal attitude— through word choice, asides, sentence flow, paragraph density, and other individual stylistic devices.
Answer: It is the fiery truth that burns in his heart until it becomes unbearable to wait even a single moment longer before putting pen to paper or fingertips to keyboard.
Explanation:
The paragraph given explains that the true essence of a writer’s voice “lies far beneath the surface”. What does the “surface” here refer to? The writer’s grammar and word choice. A writer’s voice, the paragraph tells us, is less about his craft and more about his urge to connect and tell the story that he simply must tell. It is the reason he writes.
Now, let us look at the options to complete the paragraph:
Option A. It reveals itself in details the eye doesn't easily take in— in some unexpected hesitation or cunning adverb or barely audible inflection that makes you sit up and take notice.
This option talks of the literary devices a writer can use to grab attention. However, the paragraph argues that a writer’s voice is not merely about his word choice and his craft. So this is not the right option to complete the paragraph.
Option B. And contrary to popular belief, a writer’s voice is learnt more than it’s “found” or “discovered.”
This option offers a new line of thought— that a writer’s voice can be learnt. However, the paragraph we have is not about how a writer’s voice can be found or learnt. It is about what constitutes the essence of a writer’s voice. So this is again not the right option to complete the paragraph.
Option C. It is the fiery truth that burns in his heart until it becomes unbearable to wait even a single moment longer before putting pen to paper or fingertips to keyboard.
The paragraph explains how the writer’s voice is a force that drives him to tell his story. The penultimate line talks of the voice being “the reason he writes”. Option C fits in well with this. It explains how the voice burns in the writer’s heart forcing him to give in and put pen to paper. So this is a good option to complete the paragraph.
Option D. It is the way an author expresses personal attitude— through word choice, asides, sentence flow, paragraph density, and other individual stylistic devices.
This line talks of word and grammar choices a writer makes to expresses his personal attitude. The paragraph states clearly that the true essence of the writer’s voice is not merely about this. So option D is also not the right one to complete the paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence C
Choice C is the correct answer.

Question 17: When components of his New Deal got struck down by the Supreme Court of the United States, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt threatened to increase the number of its judges from nine to fifteen through a court-reform bill. He reasoned that packing the court with six new judges would bring about a new majority that would side with the government. _________________________________________. For, in 1937, Justice Owen Roberts changed his vote to side with the government-leaning judges, and Roosevelt thereafter did not need to pursue court packing.

Choose the option which fits in best in the given blank:
A. The judiciary refused to let in a Trojan horse into its citadel of independence.
B. The resultant public backlash put paid to his plans.
C. His relationship with the judiciary was fraught with confrontation and conflict.
D. Shortly thereafter, ‘a switch in time saved the nine’.
Answer: Shortly thereafter, ‘a switch in time saved the nine’.
Explanation:
The key to identifying the missing sentence lies in the final sentence, which tells us that Roosevelt did not need to pursue court packing, as Justice Owen Roberts changed his vote to side with the government-leaning judges. Option D captures this ‘switch’ well.
Option A talks of the independence of the judiciary, which is unrelated to the last sentence, which talks of Justice Owen Roberts’ change of stance.
In case of option B, if the public backlash had put paid to Roosevelt’s plans, there is no sense discussing in the next sentence that “Roosevelt thereafter did not need to pursue court packing”.
Option C doesn’t fit in the paragraph as it is on a tangent—about FDR’s relationship with the judiciary, whereas the paragraph is specifically about court packing.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D

Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 18: To mediate the competing claims of individuals, communities and the state, very early on in its history, the Supreme Court invented something that it called the “essential religious practices test”. Under this test, ostensibly religious practices could gain constitutional sanction only if — in the view of the Court — they were “essential” or “integral” to the religion in question. In the beginning, the court emphasized that essential religious practices would have to be determined by taking an internal point of view, and looking to the tenets and the doctrines of the religion itself. In later years, however, the court began to take an increasingly interventionist stance, using the essential religious practices test to make wide-ranging — often untethered — claims about religions, and even trying to mold religions into more rationalistic and homogenous monoliths, while marginalizing dissident traditions.

Choose the option which fits in best in the given blank:
A. In crux, the Supreme Court rules that an essential practice, like a ritual, in pursuance of religious beliefs, is a critical aspect of the faith itself and that freedom of religion encompass this aspect.
B. The high watermark of this approach came in 2004, when the court held that the public performance of the Tandava dance was no essential part of the religion of the Ananda Marga sect, even though it had been specifically set down as such in their holy book.
C. For example, the landmark verdict by the Bombay High Court that women should be allowed to enter the Haji Ali sanctum was based on careful and circumspect perusal of passages from the Koran and the Hadith, material placed before it by the Dargah Trust.
D. After all, in a society where religion and the public sphere have always been so intertwined, religious exclusion has a public character, and not just an issue of sacral traditions but one of civil rights and material and symbolic equality.
Answer: The high watermark of this approach came in 2004, when the court held that the public performance of the Tandava dance was no essential part of the religion of the Ananda Marga sect, even though it had been specifically set down as such in their holy book.
Explanation:
The paragraph describes the "essential religious practices test" adopted by the Supreme Court to determine whether religious practices under dispute are to be given constitutional sanction. According to the paragraph, "in the beginning", the Supreme Court based its decisions by taking "an internal point of view". However, in later years, the SC began to take an "increasingly interventionist stance" , using the test to marginalize dissenting traditions and mold religions into more rationalistic forms.
Let us look at the options to complete the paragraph.
Option A- In crux, the Supreme Court rules that an essential practice, like a ritual, in pursuance of religious beliefs, is a critical aspect of the faith itself and that freedom of religion encompass this aspect.
This option talks of essential practices of religions. This idea is discussed first in the paragraph, but it moves on to talk about the SC’s interventionist approach in later stages. So we rule this option out.
Option B- The high watermark of this approach came in 2004, when the court held that the public performance of the Tandava dance was no essential part of the religion of the Ananda Marga sect, even though it had been specifically set down as such in their holy book.
This option continues the idea in the penultimate sentence that the SC is trying to “mold religions into more rationalistic and homogenous monoliths”. Even though the Tandava dance was set down as essential in the holy book of the Ananda Marga sect, the SC ruled that public performance of the dance was not. So, option B seems to be a good one to complete the paragraph.
Option C-For example, the landmark verdict by the Bombay High Court that women should be allowed to enter the Haji Ali sanctum was based on careful and circumspect perusal of passages from the Koran and the Hadith, material placed before it by the Dargah Trust.
This option talks of Bombay HC verdict, whereas the rest of the passage is about the Supreme Court. Further, this option does not continue the idea in the penultimate line that the SC is using its discretionary power in molding religions to more rationalistic, homogeneous forms.
Option D- After all, in a society where religion and the public sphere have always been so intertwined, religious exclusion has a public character, and not just an issue of sacral traditions but one of civil rights and material and symbolic equality.
This option is a close contender. However, it is limited to “religious exclusion” whereas the paragraph is more general, about contentious religious practices gaining constitutional sanction. Option B is better than option D to complete the paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B

Choice B is the correct answer.

Question 19: In his book, The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins puts forth the radical theory that all living creatures are essentially vehicles for their genes, and exist merely to transmit and propagate their genes. _________________________________. In fact, Dawkins later wrote that his choice of the word “selfish” was wrong, since it attributed an anthropomorphic quality to what is essentially a bunch of chemicals. A better term, he thought, would have been “the immortal gene”.

Choose the option which fits in best in the given blank:
A. Only when individuals behave in their genetic self-interest and form alliances, genes are passed on for species to survive.
B. Genes are not sentient; they passes through bodies and affect them, but are not affected by them on the way through.
C. Dawkins’s proposition is that pure altruistic behavior has never helped anyone in the history of any species.
D. Genes may be willing to abandon the individual to replicate themselves.
Answer: Genes are not sentient; they passes through bodies and affect them, but are not affected by them on the way through.
Explanation:
The first line of the paragraph explains the radical theory proposed by Richard Dawkins in his book, The Selfish Gene, that all living creatures merely exist to transmit and propagate their genes. The lines after the missing one explain that Dawkins later regretted his choice of the word “selfish” and thought that “immortal” was a better word to describe the genes as they are essentially chemicals, without human qualities.
Now of the given options to fill the blank, option D is ruled out straight away as it seems unrelated to the paragraph given.
Option A states that species survive only when individuals behave in genetic self-interest, forming alliances so that their genes are passed on. While this seems to add to the first line, it does not gel well with the ideas in the next two lines, of genes merely being chemicals, without any anthropomorphic qualities.
Option C is not a good choice to fill the blank for the same reason that option A is not: it adds to the description of genes as “selfish” and so does not hook up effectively with the next two lines of the paragraph.
Option B, on the other hand, declares that genes are not sentient (i.e. capable of emotion) and that while they affect living organisms, they are not affected by them in turn. This option adds to the first line, while at the same time links to the next idea in the paragraph that genes are not selfish, but immortal. So option B is a good choice to fill the blank.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"

Hence, the answer is Sentence B
Choice B is the correct answer.
Question 20: ___________________________________________________________.For instance, 19th-century Japan was a world where steam and sail, railroads and rickshaws all shared common space. Industrial revolutions were distributed unequally in place and time. In the Second World War, the most common transport for the German army wasn’t tanks and other motorized vehicles but horses. The technological world wasn’t flat. This is the world, still, today. It is lumpy and bumpy, with old and new technologies accumulating on top of and beside each other.

Choose the option which fits in best in the given blank:
A. Throughout history, imperatives besides efficiency have driven technological change.
B. As they layer and stack, technologies persist over time.
C. The best ideas do not necessarily become popular right away.
D. Some innovations spread slowly, while others do so quickly.
Answer: As they layer and stack, technologies persist over time.
Explanation:
The paragraph describes 19th century Japan and Second World War Germany to highlight the fact that technological change results in a “lumpy and bumpy” world where old and new technologies co-exist, piling on top of each other.
This idea is best captured by option (B). Technologies layer and stack and endure over time.
Option (A) talks of factors other than “efficiency” driving technological change. This is unrelated to the rest of the paragraph.
Option (C) states that “the best ideas” do not necessarily become popular right away. The paragraph does not describe any “great ideas” and say that these were unpopular when they were first introduced.
Option (D) states that innovations do not spread at the same rate; some are adopted slowly while some catch on quickly. The paragraph given, however, does not relate to this idea.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B

Choice B is the correct answer.

The document Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 3 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT is a part of the CAT Course Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC).
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FAQs on Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 3 - Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

1. कोविड-19 क्या है?
उत्तर: कोविड-19 एक वायरस संक्रमण है जो मनुष्यों में फैलता है। यह एक संक्रामक बीमारी है जिसे सांस लेने के माध्यम से फैलाया जाता है और साधारणतः संक्रमण के लक्षणों में बुखार, सांस लेने में कठिनाई, और गले में सूजन शामिल हो सकती है।
2. कोविड-19 का कारण क्या है?
उत्तर: कोविड-19 का कारण सीआरएस द्वारा पंद्रह कोरोनावायरस नामक वायरस है। यह वायरस मनुष्यों को संक्रमित करता है और उन्हें कोविड-19 बीमारी का कारण बनाता है।
3. कोविड-19 के लक्षण क्या हो सकते हैं?
उत्तर: कोविड-19 के लक्षणों में बुखार, सांस लेने में कठिनाई, गले में सूजन, खांसी, थकान, सिरदर्द, गंध और स्वाद की खोई हुई अनुभूति, और शरीर में दर्द शामिल हो सकता है। यह लक्षण व्यक्ति से व्यक्ति भिन्न हो सकते हैं और उनकी गंभीरता भी विभिन्न हो सकती है।
4. कोविड-19 की रोकथाम के लिए क्या कार्रवाई की जा रही है?
उत्तर: कोविड-19 की रोकथाम के लिए कई कार्रवाई की जा रही है। इनमें समाजी दूरी बनाए रखना, अच्छे हाथ धोने की आदत बनाए रखना, मास्क पहनना, वैक्सीनेशन करवाना, और सरकारी निर्देशों का पालन करना शामिल है। ये सभी कार्रवाई लोगों को संक्रमण से बचाने और उसकी फैलाव को रोकने में मदद करती हैं।
5. कोविड-19 का इलाज क्या है?
उत्तर: कोविड-19 का इलाज लक्षणाधारक देखें, सामान्यतः घरेलू उपचार, और बीमारी की गंभीरता पर निर्भर करता है। लक्षणाधारक व्यक्ति को आराम करने के लिए बेड आराम करना, पर्याप्त पानी पीना, उचित आहार लेना, और निर्देशित दवाओं का सेवन करना सलाह दी जाती है। गंभीर मामलों में अस्पताल में भर्ती होना भी जरूरी हो सकता है।
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