Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

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Definition of Stress
Consider a small area  δA on the surface of a body (Fig. 1.1). The force acting on this area is  δF.
This force can be resolved into two perpendicular components

  • The component of force acting normal to the area called normal  force and is denoted by  δFn 
  • The component of force acting along the plane of area is called tangential force and is denoted by δFt

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fig 1.1 Normal and Tangential Forces on a surface


When they are expressed as force per unit area they are called as normal stress and tangential stress respectively. The tangential stress is also called shear stress.

The normal stress
Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev     (1.1)


And shear stress
Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev   (1.2)
 

Definition of Fluid

  • A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously in the face of tangential or shear stress, irrespective of the   magnitude of shear stress .This continuous deformation under the application of shear stress constitutes a flow.

  • In this connection fluid can also be defined as the state of matter that cannot sustain any shear stress.

Example : Consider Fig 1.2

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
            Fig 1.2 Shear stress on a fluid body

If a shear stress τ is applied at any location in a fluid, the element 011' which is initially at rest, will move to 022', then to 033'. Further, it moves to 044' and continues to move in a similar fashion.

In other words, the tangential stress in a fluid body depends on velocity of deformation and vanishes as this velocity approaches zero. A good example is Newton's  parallel plate experiment where dependence of shear force on the velocity of deformation  was established.

 Distinction Between Solid and Fluid

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
         Fig 1.3 Deformation of a Solid Body

 Concept of Continuum

  • The concept of continuum is a kind of idealization of the continuous description of matter where the properties of the matter are considered as continuous functions of space variables. Although any matter is composed of several molecules, the concept of continuum assumes a continuous distribution of mass within the matter or system with no empty space, instead of the actual conglomeration of separate molecules. 
  • Describing a fluid flow quantitatively makes it necessary to assume that flow variables (pressure , velocity etc.) and fluid properties vary continuously from one point to another. Mathematical description of flow on this basis have proved to be reliable and treatment of fluid medium as a continuum has firmly become established. For example density at a point is normally defined as
    Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
    Here ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev is the volume of the fluid element and m is the mass
     
  • If ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev is very large ρ is affected by the inhomogeneities in the fluid medium. Considering another extreme if ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev is very small, random movement of atoms (or molecules) would change their number at different times. In the continuum approximation point density is defined at the smallest magnitude of ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev, before statistical fluctuations become significant. This is called continuum limit and is denoted by ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRevc.
    Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev


Concept of Continuum - contd from previous slide

  • One of the factors considered important in determining the validity of continuum model is molecular density. It is the distance between the molecules which is characterised by mean free path ( λ ). It is calculated by finding statistical average distance the molecules travel between two successive collisions. If the mean free path is very small as compared with some characteristic length in the flow domain (i.e., the molecular density is very high) then the gas can be treated as a continuous medium. If the mean free path is large in comparison to some characteristic length, the gas cannot be considered continuous and it should be analysed by the molecular theory. 
  • A dimensionless parameter known as Knudsen numberK n = λ / L, where λ is the mean free path and L is the characteristic length. It describes the degree of departure from continuum.
    Usually when K n> 0.01, the concept of continuum does not hold good.
    Beyond this critical range of Knudsen number, the flows are known as slip flow (0.01 < K n < 0.1), transition flow (0.1 < K n < 10) and free-molecule flow (Kn > 10).

However, for the flow regimes considered in this course , K n is always less than 0.01 and it is usual to say that the fluid is a continuum.

Other factor which checks the validity of continuum is the elapsed time between collisions. The time should be small enough so that the random statistical description of molecular activity holds good. 

In continuum approach, fluid properties such as density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, temperature, etc. can be expressed as continuous functions of space and time. 


Fluid Properties
Characteristics of a continuous fluid which are independent of the motion of the fluid are called basic properties of the fluid. Some of the basic properties are as discussed below.

Property

Symbol

Definition

   Density

    (kg/m3)

ρ

The density of a fluid is its mass per unit volume . If a fluid element enclosing a point has a volume ΔDefinition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev and mass Δm (Fig. 1.4), then density (ρ)at point is written as

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev 

However, in a medium where continuum model is valid one can write -

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev(1.3)

 

   

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
 Fig 1.4 A fluid element enclosing point P

Specific Weight

(N/m3)

γ

The specific weight is the weight of fluid per unit volume. The specific weight is given

by     y= pg   (1.4)

Where is the gravitational acceleration. Just as weight must be clearly distinguished from mass, so must the specific weight be distinguished from density.
 

Specific Volume

(m3/Kg)

v

The specific volume of a fluid is the volume occupied by unit mass of fluid.

Thus

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev  
(1.5)

 

Specific Gravity

s

For liquids, it is the ratio of density of a liquid at actual conditions to the density of pure water at 101 kN/m2 , and at 4 degreeC.

The specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of its density to that of either hydrogen or air at some specified temperature or pressure.

However, there is no general standard; so the conditions must be stated while referring to the specific gravity of a gas.

 

   Viscosity ( μ )

  • Viscosity is a fluid property whose effect is understood when the fluid is in motion.

  • In a flow of fluid, when the fluid elements move with different velocities, each element will feel some resistance due to fluid  friction within the elements.

  •  Therefore, shear stresses can be identified between the fluid elements with different velocities.

  • The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity field was given by Sir Isaac Newton.

Consider a flow (Fig. 1.5) in which all fluid particles are moving in the same direction in such a way that the fluid layers move parallel with different velocities.

Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev 
 Fig 1.5 Parallel flow of a fluid  
  Fig 1.6 Two adjacent layers of a moving fluid.

  • The upper layer, which is moving faster, tries to draw the lower slowly moving layer along with it by means of a force along the direction of flow on this layer. Similarly, the lower layer tries to retard the upper one, according to Newton's third law, with an equal and opposite force on it (Figure 1.6).
     

  • Such a fluid flow where x-direction velocities, for example, change with y-coordinate is called shear flow of the fluid.
     

  • Thus, the dragging effect of one layer on the other is experienced by a tangential force on the respective layers. If acts over an area of contact A, then the shear stress τ is defined as

                                                                                                      t = F/A
Viscosity ( μ )

  • Newton postualed that τ is proportional to the quantity Δu/ Δy where Δy  is the distance of separation of the two layers and Δu  is  the difference in their velocities.

  • In the limiting case of , Δu / Δy equals du/dy, the velocity gradient at a point in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the layer.

  • According to Newton τ and du/dy bears the relation

    Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev                            (1.7) 


where, the constant of proportionality μ is known as the coefficient of viscosity or simply viscosity which is a property of the fluid and depends on its state. Sign of τ depends upon the sign of du/dyFor the profile shown in Fig. 1.5, du/dy is positive everywhere and hence, τ is positive. Both the velocity and stress are considered positive in the positive direction of the coordinate parallel to them.


Equation   Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev 
defining the viscosity of a fluid, is known as Newton's law of viscosity. Common fluids, viz. water, air, mercury obey Newton's law of viscosity and are known as Newtonian fluids.

Other classes of fluids, viz. paints, different polymer solution, blood do not obey the typical linear relationship, of τ and du/dy and are known as non-Newtonian fluids. In non-newtonian fluids viscosity itself may be a function of deformation rate as you will study in the next lecture.

 Causes of Viscosity         

  • The causes of viscosity in a fluid are possibly attributed to two factors:
    (i) intermolecular force of cohesion
    (ii) molecular momentum exchange 
  • Due to strong cohesive forces between the molecules, any layer in a moving fluid tries to drag the adjacent layer to move with an equal speed and thus produces the effect of viscosity as discussed earlier. Since cohesion decreases with temperature, the liquid viscosity does likewise.
    Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
    Fig 1.7 Movement of fluid molecules between two adjacent  moving layers 
  • Molecules from layer aa in course of continous thermal agitation migrate into layer bb 
  • Momentum from the migrant molecules from layer aa is stored by molecules of layer bb by way of collision
  • Thus layer bb as a whole is speeded up
  • Molecules from the lower layer bb arrive at aa and tend to retard the layer aa 
  • Every such migration of molecules causes forces of acceleration or deceleration to drag the layers so as to oppose the differences in velocity between the layers and produce the effect of viscosity. 

Causes of Viscosity - 

  • As the random molecular motion increases with a rise in temperature, the viscosity also increases accordingly. Except for very special cases (e.g., at very high pressure) the viscosity of both liquids and gases ceases to be a function of pressure. 
  • For Newtonian fluids, the coefficient of viscosity depends strongly on temperature but varies very little with pressure.
  • For liquids, molecular motion is less significant than the forces of cohesion, thus viscosity of liquids decrease with increase in temperature.
  • For gases,molecular motion is more significant than the cohesive forces, thus viscosity of gases increase with increase in temperature.

           Definition of Stress Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fig 1.8: Change of Viscosity of Water and Air under 1 atm 


No-slip Condition of Viscous Fluids

  • It has been established through experimental observations that the relative velocity between the solid surface and the adjacent fluid particles is zero whenever a viscous fluid flows over a solid surface. This is known as no-slip condition. 
  • This behavior of no-slip at the solid surface is not same as the wetting of surfaces by the fluids. For example, mercury flowing in a stationary glass tube will not wet the surface, but will have zero velocity at the wall of the tube.
  • The wetting property results from surface tension, whereas the no-slip condition is a consequence of fluid viscosity.
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