Class 10  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 10  >  Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes - Social Studies (SST) Class 10


  • Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities after processing raw materials into more valuable products.
  • Paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore, and aluminium from bauxite.

Sugar is produced from SugarcaneSugar is produced from Sugarcane

  • Some types of clothes are manufactured from yarn, which itself is an industrial product.
  • People employed in secondary activities are responsible for manufacturing primary materials into finished goods.
  • Examples of workers in the secondary sector include those in steel factories, car, breweries, textile industries, and bakeries.
  • The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of its manufacturing industries.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
What is manufacturing?
View Solution

Importance of Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for the eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
  • Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Classification of Industries

1. Based on source of raw materials used:

  • Agro-based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
  • Mineral-based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.

2. According to their main role:

  • Basic or key industries that supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods. Example: iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
  • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers. Example: sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

3. Based on capital investment:

  • A small scale industry is defined with reference to the maximum investment allowed on the assets of a unit. At present, the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore. If the investment is more than one crore in any industry then it is known as a large scale industry.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
What is the importance of manufacturing industries?
View Solution

4. Based on ownership:

  • Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies– BHEL, SAIL etc.
  • Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals–Reliance, TATA, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  • Joint sector industries which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sector.
  • Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala. Example: Amul, Lijjat Papd.

5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:

  • Heavy industries such as iron and steel
  • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

Agro-Based Industries

Textile Industry

  • The textile sector is unusual in the Indian economy because it contributes significantly to industrial production (14%), employment (35 million people directly, second only to agriculture), and foreign exchange profits (about 24.6 per cent).
  • It is the country's sole industry that is self-sufficient and comprehensive throughout the value chain, from raw materials to the highest value-added products.

Cotton Textiles

  • Cotton textiles were made in ancient India using hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques. 
  • Power looms were popular after the 18th century. 
  • During the colonial period, our traditional businesses experienced a setback since they couldn't compete with England's mill-made textiles.

Cotton Industry in 18th CenturyCotton Industry in 18th Century

  • The cotton textile industry initially developed in the cotton growing regions of Maharashtra and Gujarat due to factors such as the availability of raw cotton, suitable climate, accessible market and transport facilities, and labor.
  • This industry is closely connected to agriculture and provides livelihoods to farmers, cotton boll pluckers, and workers involved in various stages of production such as ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring, and sewing.
  • The industry's growth also supports other sectors like chemicals and dyes, packaging materials, and engineering works.
  • While spinning is still concentrated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu, weaving is decentralized to incorporate traditional skills and designs in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  • India excels in spinning production but struggles to produce high-quality fabrics due to limitations in weaving technology and the inability to fully utilize the high-quality yarn produced in the country.
  • Weaving is carried out through handloom, powerloom, and mills.
  • The handspun khadi industry, which involves weaving in homes as a cottage industry, provides significant employment opportunities for weavers.

Jute Textiles

  • India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods.
  • It is the second largest exporter of jute after Bangladesh.

Jute IndustryJute Industry

  • Most of the jute mills are located in West Bengal, along the banks of the Hugli river.
  • The proximity of jute producing areas is a factor responsible for their location in the Hugli basin.
  • The availability of inexpensive water transport is another factor supporting their location.
  • A good network of railways, roadways, and waterways facilitates the movement of raw material to the mills.
  • The Hugli river provides abundant water for processing raw jute.
  • Cheap labor from West Bengal and neighboring states such as Bihar, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh is available.
  • Kolkata, being a large urban center, provides banking, insurance, and port facilities for the export of jute goods.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
Where are most of the jute mills located in India?
View Solution

Sugar Industry

  • India is the second-largest producer of sugar in the world, but it holds the first position in the production of gur and khandsari.
  • The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and its sucrose content reduces during transportation.

Sugar MillSugar Mill

  • The sugar mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Sixty percent of the mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • The seasonal nature of the industry makes it suitable for the cooperative sector.
  • In recent years, there has been a shift and concentration of mills in the southern and western states, particularly in Maharashtra.
  • This is because the cane produced in these states has a higher sucrose content and the cooler climate allows for a longer crushing season.
  • The cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Mineral-based Industries

Iron and Steel Industry

Iron and Steel IndustryIron and Steel Industry

  • The steel industry is considered to be the backbone of other industries as they rely on it for machinery.
  • Steel is necessary for the production of various engineering goods, construction materials, defense equipment, medical devices, telephonic equipment, scientific equipment, and consumer goods.
  • The production and consumption of steel are often seen as indicators of a country's development.
  • The iron and steel industry is considered a heavy industry due to the heavy and bulky nature of raw materials and finished goods, leading to high transportation costs.
  • The ideal location for steel plants should have an efficient transport network for distribution to markets.
  • The Chhotanagpur plateau region is the most suitable location for iron and steel industries due to its advantages, such as low-cost iron ore, high-grade raw materials in close proximity, cheap labor, and a large domestic market with growth potential.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
Which industry is considered the backbone of other industries, as they rely on it for machinery?
View Solution

Aluminium Smelting

  • Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is known for its light weight, resistance to corrosion, good heat conductivity, malleability, and strength when mixed with other metals.
  • It is commonly used in the manufacturing of aircraft, utensils, and wires.
  • It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc, and lead in various industries.
  • Aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Bauxite, a bulky dark reddish colored rock, is the raw material used in the smelting process.
  • The availability of regular electricity supply and affordable raw materials are key factors for the location of aluminium smelting plants.Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Chemical Industries

  • The chemical industry in India is experiencing rapid growth and diversification.
  • It consists of both large and small scale manufacturing units.
  • Significant growth has been observed in both the inorganic and organic sectors.
  • Inorganic chemicals such as sulphuric acid, nitric acid, soda ash, and caustic soda are widely produced and used in various industries including fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes, glass, soaps, detergents, and paper.
  • These industries are spread across the country.
  • Organic chemicals, particularly petrochemicals, are used in the manufacturing of synthetic fibers, rubber, plastics, dyes, drugs, and pharmaceuticals.
  • Organic chemical plants are usually located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.
  • The chemical industry is a major consumer of its own products.
  • Basic chemicals are processed to produce other chemicals that are used in industrial applications, agriculture, or directly for consumer markets.
  • It would be helpful to make a list of specific chemical products that one is aware of.

Fertiliser Industry

Fertiliser IndustryFertiliser Industry

  • The fertilizer industry in India primarily focuses on producing nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers, ammonium phosphate (DAP), and complex fertilizers.
  • Nitrogenous fertilizers, particularly urea, are the main products of the industry.
  • Complex fertilizers contain a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).
  • Potash, or potassium, is entirely imported as India does not have any commercially usable reserves of potash or potassium compounds.
  • The industry expanded to various parts of the country after the Green Revolution.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Kerala contribute to half of the fertilizer production in India.
  • Other significant fertilizer producers include Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
Which industry in India primarily focuses on producing nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers, ammonium phosphate (DAP), and complex fertilizers?
View Solution

Cement Industry

Cement IndustryCement Industry

  • Cement is necessary for various construction activities, including building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams, and commercial establishments.
  • The cement industry requires large and heavy raw materials such as limestone, silica, and gypsum.
  • It also relies on coal and electric power, as well as rail transportation.
  • Plants have been strategically located in Gujarat, India, to have convenient access to the Gulf countries' market.

Automobile Industry

  • Automobiles in India are used for quick transportation of goods and passengers.
  • Various types of vehicles such as trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers, and utility vehicles are manufactured in India.
  • The liberalization of the economy led to the introduction of new and modern vehicle models, which increased the demand for vehicles in the market.
  • This resulted in a healthy growth of the automobile industry, including the production of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and three-wheelers.
  • The automobile industry is mainly located around major cities like Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, and Bengaluru.

Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • The electronics industry in India encompasses a wide range of products such as transistor sets, televisions, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchanges, radars, and computers.
  • Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India, but other important centers for electronic goods include Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, and Coimbatore.
  • The major industry concentration is found in Bengaluru, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, and Pune.
  • One of the significant impacts of this industry is the generation of employment opportunities.
  • The growth in both hardware and software sectors is crucial for the success of the IT industry in India.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • Although industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development, the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and the resulting degradation of environment that they have caused, cannot be overlooked. 
    Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:
    (a) Air
    (b) Water 
    (c) Land
    (d) Noise
    The polluting industries also include thermal power plants. Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10
  • Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. 
  • Dust, spray mist, and smoke are examples of airborne particulate materials that contain both solid and liquid particles. Chemical and paper companies, brick kilns, refineries, and smelting facilities, as well as the burning of fossil fuels in large and small factories that disregard environmental standards, all create smoke. Toxic gas leaks can be extremely dangerous and have long-term consequences.
  • Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole. 
  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. into the water bodies. 
  • Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. 
  • Soil and water pollution are closely related. Dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless. Rainwater percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.
  • Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, but it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress. Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills also make a lot of noise.

Question for Chapter Notes: Manufacturing Industries
Try yourself:
What are the main types of pollution caused by industries?
View Solution

Control of Environmental Degradation

Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10Control of Environmental Degradation

Every litre of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of freshwater. How can the industrial pollution of freshwater be reduced?
Some suggestions are:

  • minimising use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
    harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
  • treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
  • Secondary treatment by biological process
  • Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.

Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources also needs to be regulated legally. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. 
Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. 

Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.

NTPC Shows the Way

NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001. The corporation has a proactive approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.
This has been possible through:

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
  • Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
  • Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.
The document Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10
76 videos|505 docs|155 tests

FAQs on Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is the importance of manufacturing industries?
Ans. Manufacturing industries play a crucial role in the economic development of a country. They contribute to the employment generation, increase in national income, and overall growth of the economy. These industries provide finished goods to meet the needs of the people and also provide raw materials for other industries. Additionally, manufacturing industries promote exports, reduce dependence on imports, and contribute to technological advancements.
2. What are agro-based industries?
Ans. Agro-based industries are those industries that use agricultural raw materials as their primary inputs for manufacturing various products. These industries include food processing, dairy, textiles, sugar, jute, and many others. Agro-based industries are essential as they add value to agricultural produce, provide employment opportunities in rural areas, and contribute to the growth of the agricultural sector.
3. What are mineral-based industries?
Ans. Mineral-based industries are those industries that use minerals and ores as their raw materials for manufacturing products. These industries include iron and steel, cement, aluminum, chemicals, fertilizers, and many others. Mineral-based industries are crucial as they utilize the country's mineral resources, create employment opportunities, and contribute to the industrial development of a nation.
4. How do industrial pollution and environmental degradation occur?
Ans. Industrial pollution and environmental degradation occur due to the release of harmful pollutants and waste materials from manufacturing industries into the environment. These pollutants can be in the form of air emissions, water discharges, and solid waste. Industrial activities such as improper waste disposal, emissions from chimneys, and chemical spills can lead to pollution of air, water, and soil, causing harm to human health and the ecosystem.
5. How can environmental degradation be controlled in manufacturing industries?
Ans. Environmental degradation in manufacturing industries can be controlled through various measures. Some of the important steps include implementing pollution control technologies, adopting cleaner production techniques, promoting recycling and waste management practices, and adhering to environmental regulations and standards. Additionally, industries can invest in research and development to develop sustainable and eco-friendly manufacturing processes. Collaboration between industries, government, and communities is also essential to address environmental concerns effectively.
76 videos|505 docs|155 tests
Download as PDF
Explore Courses for Class 10 exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Download free EduRev App
Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!
Related Searches

Sample Paper


practice quizzes


mock tests for examination


Important questions


past year papers


Semester Notes










study material




Extra Questions


Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10




shortcuts and tricks


Objective type Questions


Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10


Previous Year Questions with Solutions


Viva Questions


Manufacturing Industries Chapter Notes | Social Studies (SST) Class 10


video lectures