Work plays an important role in our lives as an individual and as members of society.
A worker is an individual, who is involved in some productive activity, to earn a living. An economic activity refers to the activity performed by people to earn the living. The main
three types of economic activities are consumption, production and distribution.
Production activity refers to all those activities which are under taken to produce goods and services for generation of income.
Labour force: All persons, who are working (have a job) and those are not working but able to work and willing to work at the existing wage rate constitutes labour force.
Labour Force: Persons working + persons seeking and/or available for work.
Work force: The number of persons, who are actually employed at a particular time are known as workforce. It includes all those persons who are actually engaged in productive
activities. This includes person between age group of 15-60 years.
Labour supply: It refers to various amount of labour that workers are willing to work, corresponding to a particular wage rate.
Work Force Participation Rate(Ratio):- It is measured as the ratio between workforce and total population of a country.
Types of workers:
(a) Self employed
(b) Hired workers
i. Casual Workers
ii. Regular Workers(Salaried)
(a) Self Employed:- The worker who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self employed.
(b) Hired workers:- Those people who are hired by others and are paid wages or salaries as a reward for their services are called hired workers.
1. Casual Workers:- Those people, who are not hired by their employers on a regular/permanent basis and do not get social security benefits are said to be casual
2. Regular Workers(Salaried):- When a worker is engaged by someone or by an enterprise and paid his or her wages on a regular basis, they are known to as regular salaried employees or regular workers.
About two fifth of the total population in the country is engaged in various economic activities.
Men particularly rural men, form the major section of workforce in India.
Majority of workers in India are self employed, casual wage labourers and regular salaried employees together account for less than half the proportion of India’s workforce.
About three fifth of India’s workforce depends on agriculture and other allied activities as the major source of livelihood.
Jobless Growth: It is defined as a situation where GDP grows faster than the employment opportunities resulting in unemployment.
Casualisation and informalisation of employment: Casualisation refers to a situation when the percentage of casually hired workers in the total workforce tends to rise over time.
Informalisation: Refers to a situation when people tend to find employment more in informal sector of the economy, and less in formal sector of the economy.
Unemployment: It is a situation where a person is ready and willing to work at the prevailing wage-rate but doesn’t get work.
Unemployment Rate: It is calculated as percentage of labour force who are unemployed, not as percentage of total population.
Types of unemployment:
1. Rural unemployment
a. Seasonal Unemployment
b. Disguised Unemployment
2. Other types of unemployment
3. Urban Unemployment
a. Industrial Unemployment
b. Educated Unemployment
c. Technological Unemployment
Educated Unemployment:- Among the educated people, apart from open unemployment, many are underemployed because their qualification does not match
the job. Faulty education system, mass output, preference for white collar jobs, lack of employable skills and dwindling formal salaried jobs are mainly responsible for unemployment among educated youths in India. Educated unemployment may be either open or underemployment.
Causes of unemployment:
a. Slow rate of economic growth
b. Population explosion
c. Underdeveloped agriculture
d. Defective educational system
e. Slow growth of Industry
f. Decline of cottage and small industry.
g. Faulty planning
h. Inadequate employment planning.
i. Low capital formation.
j. Excessive use of Foreign Technology
k. Lack of financial resources
l. Increase in labour force
Remedial measures for unemployment:
a. Accelerating growth rate of GDP
b. Control of population growth
c. Development to small scale enterprises.
d. Encouragement in infrastructure.
e. Special employment programmes.
f. Rapid industrialisation.
Special programmes to fight poverty and unemployment:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA)
Its a significant recent attempt of govt, offering guaranteed employment to those in the rural
areas who are below poverty line.
a. Swarnjyanti sahari Rozgar yojna.
b. Swarnjyanti Gram Swarozgaar yojna.
c. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Rozgar yojna.