Ques 1: Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.
Sol: (b) Because life situations of persons are different. The requirements vary according to the living conditions of people. Therefore, people seek those things that are most important to them, i.e. the things which can fulfill their aspirations and desires.
Ques 2: Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer:
(a) People have different developmental goals.
(b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
Sol: No, the above two statements do not have the same meaning. This can be justified by the following example -
A boy from a rich urban family desires to get quality education and capital to invest. On the other hand, an Adivasi from Narmada valley wants rehabilitation and regular work. These developmental goals are different but not conflicting.
Ques 3: Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
Sol: There are factors other than income which are also important aspects in our lives. For example,
(1) In the case of rural woman, gender equality is more important factor than income.
(2) For scheduled castes and tribes social equality, self-confidence and self-esteem are more important factor than income.
(3) Similarly in the case of child labour, proper education and freedom are more important factor than income.
(4) Job security is more important than more income for a casual labour.
Ques 4: Read this newspaper report and answer the questions that follow:
A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open-air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic wastecaused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning.
A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals contracted a local company of Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.
(i) Who are the people who benefitted and who did not?
(ii) What should be the developmental goal for this country?
Sol: (i) The local company owner and the multinational company benefitted while a large number of innocent local people of Abidjan in Ivory Coast suffered from this act.
(ii) The developmental goals for this country should be to frame and have proper, strict rules and laws regarding the pollution and safer-environment etc. People or any organization violating these laws, causing environmental hazards should be punished by the government according to these laws. Also the country should create arrangements for proper disposal of industrial wastes and better healthcare for the people.
Ques 5: Based on data given in Table 1.2 (COMPARISON OF TWO COUNTRIES, textbook page 9), calculate the average income for both the countries.
(i) Will you be equally happy to live in both these countries?
(ii) Are both equally developed?
Sol: (i) No, we shall not be equally happy to live in both these countries. This is because; country B does not have equitable distribution of income.
(ii) No, both countries are not equally developed. Country A has equitable distribution of income. On the other hand in country B, 4 out of 5 citizens are poor.
Ques 6: Give three examples where an average is used for comparing the situations.
Sol: In the following cases, an average can be used for comparing the situations:
1. To compare the performance of cricket players,
2. We find out average daily income to compare income and living status of a casual labour.
3. Average is used for comparing performance of students in an examination.
Ques 7: Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Sol: For comparison between countries, total income is not useful measure as countries have different populations and so, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. Therefore, average income or per capita income which is the total income of the country divided by its population, as an important criterion for development.
Ques 8: Beside size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?
Sol: Per capita income is useful for comparison. But it does not indicate how this income is distributed among people. So, apart from the size of per capita income, equitable distribution of income is important in comparing two or more societies.
Ques 9: Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this can we conclude that all sections o the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
Sol: No, the increase in average income of a country over a period does not mean that all sections of the economy have become better. Let us take an example from India. Average income of India has continuously been increasing since independence except in some particular years, but share of agriculture in total income of the economy has been decreasing.
Ques 10: Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
Sol: To become a developed country, India should accelerate its GDP growth. Special emphasis should be given on agriculture and small scale industries.
More than 60% of India’s labour force is engaged agriculture sector which contribute only about 27% in GDP. Moreover, in the globalization process, this sector has been neglected. As a result, the growth rate of this sector has decreased. There is urgent need to increase its growth rate by providing modern agricultural inputs, training, credit, marketing facilities etc. to the farmers.
Just to compare nearly 15% of Chinese labour force involved in industry sector contribute more than 50% in Chinese GDP. On the other hand, about 16% of our labour force engaged in industry sector contributes only 25% in India’s GDP. So, we need to develop our infrastructure, labour-intensive techniques, credit & marketing facilities and must reduce corruption and red-tapism in government offices.
Apart from these, there are other areas where India requires to pay more attention are such as health and sanitation, vocational training, employment generation etc.