1. Diabetes is a metabolism abnormality that affects the way your body uses blood sugar (glucose), your main source of energy. To understand diabetes, you have to start from the beginning – with food. Your body converts a portion of the food you eat and digest into glucose. Glucose is then absorbed into your bloodstream, where it can enter the individual cells of tissue throughout your body to be used as energy. Before your cells will let glucose in, however, they need the help of insulin.
2. Insulin is a hormone produced by your pancreas – a gland located just behind your stomach. Normally, insulin acts like a master key, unlocking the doors of your cells and allowing glucose inside. To simply maintain this process, such as at night when you’re asleep, the pancreas releases a low level of insulin on a constant basis. When necessary, such as after a meal, your pancreas increases insulin supply to meet demand.
3. After you eat a meal or a snack, your pancreas releases more insulin to make sure the extra glucose in your bloodstream can enter your cells. If you have more glucose than you need, your body can remove the excess from your blood and store it in your liver and muscles or convert it to fat. Then, when you run low on fuel, your body can release this stored energy back into your bloodstream, where insulin is waiting to usher it into your cells.
4. If you have diabetes, this whole process goes awry. Instead of entering cells throughout your body, excess glucose builds up in your bloodstream and some of it may eventually be excreted in your urine. This can happen when your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin (Type 1 diabetes), when your cells have become resistant to the effects of insulin (Type 2 diabetes) or, more commonly, when both of these problems occur.
Attempt the following questions on the basis of the passage you have read:
(a) Diabetes is a __________.
(i) nervous disorder
(ii) metabolic disorder
(iii) throat disorder
(iv) physical disorder
Correct Option is (ii) metabolic disorder
(b) If your body does not produce sufficient insulin you have __________.
(i) type 2 diabetes
(iii) type 1 diabetes
(iv) iron deficiency
Correct Option is (iii) type 1 diabetes
(c) Diabetes is related to the sugar intake of your food. (True/False)
(d) Secretions of pancreas decrease during the night. (True/False)
(e) Glucose from food gets absorbed in our __________.
(f) Pancreas produces the hormone ___________.
(g) Find the word from the passage which means the same as “change from one form to another”. (para 1)
(h) Find the word from the passage which means the same as “regular”. (para 2)