42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added 10 Fundamental Duties to the Indian Constitution. 86th Amendment Act 2002 later added 11th Fundamental Duty to the list. Swaran Singh Committee in 1976 recommended Fundamental Duties, the necessity of which was felt during the internal emergency of 1975-77.
The Fundamental Duties are dealt with Article 51A under Part-IV A of the Indian Constitution. The topic is important for IAS Exam as questions are recurring in all its three stages- Prelims, Mains and Interview.
Eleven Fundamental Duties in India
The fundamental duties which were added by the 42nd Amendment Act of the Constitution in 1976, in addition to creating and promoting culture, also strengthen the hands of the legislature in enforcing these duties vis-a-vis the fundamental rights.
The list of 11 Fundamental Duties under article 51-A to be obeyed by every Indian citizen is given in the table below:
Importance of Fundamental Duties- Part IV-A
Fundamental Duties are an inalienable part of fundamental rights. The importance of these are given in the table below:
Facts about Fundamental Duties for UPSC:
(i) Fundamental Duties are categorized into two – Moral Duty & Civic Duty
(ii) They essentially contain just a codification of tasks integral to the Indian way of life
(iii) The Fundamental Duties are confined to Indian citizens only and do not extend to foreigners unlike a few Fundamental Rights
(iv) They are also nonjusticiable similar to Directive Principle of State Policies
(v) There is no legal sanction against their violation
Criticism of Fundamental Duties
The Fundamental Duties mentioned in Part IVA of the Constitution have been criticized on the following grounds:
Those duties recommended by the committee which were not accepted were: