Fundamental Rights (Article 12 - 35)- 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

UPSC : Fundamental Rights (Article 12 - 35)- 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

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ARTICLE 23 : PROHIBITION OF TRAFFIC IN HUMAN BEINGS AND FORCED LABOUR
(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on ground only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.

ARTICLE 24 : PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN FACTORIES, ETC.
No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

ARTICLE 25 : FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND FREE PROFESSION, PRACTICE AND PROPAGATION OF RELIGION
(1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate religion.
(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law –

  • Regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;
  • Providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.
  • Explanation I: The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion.
  • Explanation II: In sub-Clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly.

ARTICLE 26 : FREEDOM TO MANAGE RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right –

  • To establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
  • To manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
  • To own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
  • To administer such property in accordance with the law.

ARTICLE 27 : FREEDOM AS TO PAYMENT OF TAXES FOR PROMOTION OF ANY PARTICULAR RELIGION
No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination.

ARTICLE 28 : FREEDOM AS TO ATTENDANCE AT RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OR RELIGIOUS WORSHIP IN CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

(1) No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.
(3) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto.

ARTICLE 29 : PROTECTION OF INTERESTS OF MINORITIES

(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

ARTICLE 30 : RIGHT OF MINORITIES TO ESTABLISH AND ADMINISTER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
(1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
(1A) In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause (1), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause.
(2) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.

ARTICLE 31 : COMPULSORY ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY {…}

ARTICLE 31A : SAVING OF LAWS PROVIDING FOR ACQUISITION OF ESTATES, ETC.

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law providing for –

  • The acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or
  • The taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or
  • The amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or
  • The extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of share-holders thereof, or
  • The extinguishment or modification of any rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or licence for the purpose of searching for, or winning, any mineral or mineral oil, or the premature termination or cancellation of and such agreement, lease or licence, shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19: Provided that where such law is a law made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent:

Provided further that where any law makes any provision for the acquisition by the State of any estate and where any land comprised therein is held by a person under his personal cultivation, it shall not be lawful for the State to acquire any portion of such land as is within the ceiling limit applicable to him under any law for the time being in force or any building or structure standing thereon or appurtenant thereto, unless the law relating to the acquisition of such land, building or structure, provides for payment of compensation at a rate which shall not be less than the market value thereof.

(2) In this article,-

(a) the expression “estate” shall, in relation to any local area, have the same meaning as that expression or its local equivalent has in the existing law relating to land tenure in force in that area and shall also include –

  • Any jagir, inam or muafi or other similar grant and in the States of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, any janmam right;
  • Any land held under ryotwari settlement;
  • Any land held or let for purposes of agriculture of for purposes ancillary thereto, including waste land, forest land, land for pasture or sites of buildings and other structures occupied by cultivators of land, agricultural labourers and village artisans;

(b) the expression “rights”, in relation to an estate, shall include any rights vesting in a proprietor, sub-proprietor, under-proprietor, tenure-holder, raiyat, under-raiyat or other intermediary and any rights or privileges in respect of land revenue.

ARTICLE 31B : VALIDATION OF CERTAIN ACTS AND REGULATIONS
Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provision thereof shall be deemed to be void, or even to have become void, on the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force.

ARTICLE 31C : SAVING OF LAWS GIVING EFFECT TO CERTAIN DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES
Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19; and no law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such policy:
Provided that where such law is made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent.

ARTICLE 31D : SAVING OF LAWS IN RESPECT OF ANTI-NATIONAL ACTIVITIES {…}
ARTICLE 32 : REMEDIES FOR ENFORCEMENT OF RIGHTS CONFERRED BY THIS PART
(1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed.
(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.
(3) Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clauses (1) and (2), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause (2).
(4) The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution.

ARTICLE 32A : CONSTITUTIONAL VALIDITY OF STATE LAWS NOT TO BE CONSIDERED IN PROCEEDINGS UNDER ARTICLE 32 {…}

ARTICLE 33 : POWER OF PARLIAMENT TO MODIFY THE RIGHTS CONFERRED BY THIS PART IN THEIR APPLICATION TO FORCES, ETC.

Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to, –

  • The members of the Armed Forces; or
  • The members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order; or
  • Persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the State for purposes of intelligence or counter intelligence; or
  • Persons employed in, or in connection with, the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation referred to in clauses (a) to (c), be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.

ARTICLE 34 : RESTRICTION ON RIGHTS CONFERRED BY THIS PART WHILE MARITAL LAW IS IN FORCE IN ANY AREA
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the Union or of a State or any person in respect of any act done by him in connection with the maintenance or restoration or order in any area within the territory of India where martial law was in force or validate any sentence passed, punishment inflicted, forfeiture ordered or other act done under martial law in such area.

ARTICLE 35 : LEGISLATION TO GIVE EFFECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THIS PART

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, –
(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws –

  • With respect to any of the matters which under clause (3) of article 16, clause (3) of article 32, article 33 and article 34 may be provided for by law made by Parliament; and
  • For prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences under this part, and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Constitution, make laws for prescribing punishment for the acts referred to in sub-clause (ii);

(b) any law in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India with respect to any of the matters referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) or providing for punishment for any act referred to in sub-clause (ii) of that clause shall, subject to the terms thereof and to any adaptations and modifications that may be made therein under article 372, continue in force until altered or repealed or amended by Parliament.

Explanation: In this article, the expression “law in force” has the same meaning as in article 372.

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