79) What part does health play in the individual's working life?
Answer: Health plays an important part in the individual's working life because
(i) An unhealthy person cannot work efficiently.
(ii) If the body is healthy then only the mind can perform well.
(iii) A healthy person is able to work harder and better, thus earning more and living a better life.
80) What are the various activities undertaken in the Primary sector, Secondary sector and Tertiary sector?
Answer: Primary Sector Activities Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming and mining. Secondary Sector Activities Manufacturing and construction. Tertiary Sector Activities Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services and insurance.
81) How will you explain the term unemployment?
Answer: Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the current wages cannot find jobs.
82) How does Population become human capital?
Answer: Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care.
83) What does 'People as a Resource' mean?
Answer: 'People as a Resource' is a way of referring to a country's working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities.
84) What is 'human capital formation'?
Answer: When the existing 'human resource' is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it 'human capital though education training and medical care formation' that adds to the productive power of the country.
85) How can investment be made in human capital?
Answer: Investment in human capital through education training and medical care yields a return just like investment in physical capital. Higher income is earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons, as well as the higher productivity of healthier people.
86) How is human capital superior to other resources?
Answer: Human Capital is in one way superior to other resources like land and physical capital: human resource can make use of land and capital but otherwise land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
87) How can a large population of India be turned as an asset rather than a liability?
Answer: A large population can be turned into a productive asset by investment in human capital by spending resources on education and health for all, training of industrial and agricultural workers in the use of modern technology, and useful scientific researches etc.
88) What kind of investment can be made on a child?
Answer: Investment of education and health on a child can yield a high return in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society.
89) How a vicious cycle is created by illiterate parents for their children?
Answer: A vicious cycle may be created by an illiterate or disadvantaged parents who themselves are uneducated and lack in hygiene, keep their children in a similarly disadvantaged state.
90) Why educated parents invest heavily on the education of their children?
Answer: This is so because they have realised the importance of education themselves. They are also conscious of proper nutrition and good hygiene
91) How have countries like Japan become rich and developed?
Answer: These countries have invested in people especially in the Field of education and health. These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital and developed efficient means of technology for development.
92) Classify various activities on the basis of its economic benefit?
Answer: Various Activities have been classified into three main sectors.
(i) Primary Sector
(ii) Secondary Sector
(iii) Tertiary Sector
93) What are Primary Activities?
Answer: Primary activities include agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying.
94) Which activities are included in Secondary sector?
Answer: Manufacturing is included in the secondary sector. All the small scale and large scale industries are included in it.
95) What are Tertiary Activities?
Answer: Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance etc. are included in the tertiary activities. The activities in this sector result in production of goods and services.
96) What are economic activities?
Answer: The activities which results in the production of goods and services. These activities add value to the national income. These activities are called economic activities.
97) What are Market Activities?
Answer:Economic activities are also called Market activities. Market activities involve remuneration to any one who performs activity performed for pay or profit. These include production of goods or services including government service.
98) What are Non-Market Activities?
Answer: Non-Market activities are the production for self consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets
99) How is division of labours made between men and women in the family?
Answer: In India women generally look after domestic chores and men work outside to earn for the family.
100) Is women's work an economic activity?
Answer: No, women are not paid for their service delivered in the family. The household work done by women is not recognised in the National Income.
101) What are the major determinants of earnings?
Answer: Education and skill are the major determinants of the earnings of any individual in the market.
102) What are unorganised sectors?
Answer: Employment in this sector is characterised by irregular and low income. In this sector there is absence of basic facilities like maternity leave, childcare
103) What kinds of jobs, attract women in organised sector?
Answer: Among the organised sector teaching and medicine attract women the most.
104) In which other sectors have women with high education and skill entered?
Answer: Some women have entered administrative and other services including jobs that need high levels of scientific and technological competence.
105) On what factors the quality of population depends?
Answer: The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
106) How can population be a liability and how can it be made an asset?
Answer: Illiterate and unhealthy population are a liability for the economy whereas literate and healthy population is an asset.
107) How does education play as an important input for human capital formation?
Answer: Education is an important input as it provides new aspirations, opens new horizons and develops values of life. Education in initial years of life bears fruits in later years in terms of good job and salary.
108) What are the benefits of vocational education at school level?
Answer: Vocational streams have been developed to equip large no. of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
109) Has the literacy rates of population increased since 1951?
Answer: The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11.
110) Why literacy rate is high among the males of India?
Answer: India has a patriarchal society or male dominating society. Social stigma doesn't allow women to be educated as they are meant for domestic chores.
111) What do you know about "Sarva Siksha Abhiyan"?
Answer: It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years by 2010.
112) What is the aim of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?
Answer: It is a time bound initiative of the central government, in partnership with the states, the local governments and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
113) Why was mid-day meal scheme launched by the government in the schools?
Answer: Mid-day meal scheme has been implemented to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status.
114) What is the strategy of eleventh plan for education and literacy?
Answer: The strategy focuses on increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology. The eleventh plan also focuses on distant education convergence of formal, non-formal, distant and IT education institutions.
115) What is the result of this eleventh plan?
Answer: Over the past fifty years, there has been a significant growth in the number of universities and institutions of higher learning in specialised areas.
116) What is the benefit of good health?
Answer: The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. Health is an indispensable basis for realising one's well being whereas an unhealthy person becomes a liability for his organisation.
117) What is the national policy of India for health?
Answer: Our national policy aims at improving the accessibility of health care, family welfare and nutritional service with a special focus on the under-privileged segment of population.
118) What is the status of 'unemployment'?
Answer: Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work and cannot find jobs.
119) What kind of unemployments exists in rural and urban areas?
Answer: In rural areas, seasonal and disguised unemployment exist and urban areas mostly have educated unemployment.
120) When does seasonal unemployment take place?
Answer: Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem.
121) What happens in disguised unemployment?
Answer: In case of disguised unemployment people appear to be employed. The work requires the service of five people but engages eight people. Three people are extra. These three are disguisedly unemployed.
122) Who are educated unemployed?
Answer: Many youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find jobs. They are educated unemplyed.
123) What is the result of unemployment in a country?
Answer: Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource. People who are asset for the economy turn into a liability.
124) How unemployment has detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy?
Answer: Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy. It also wastes the resource, which could have been gainfully employed. If people cannot be used as a resource they naturally appear as a liability to the economy.
125) Surplus labour in agriculture has moved to which jobs in secondary and tertiary sector?
Answer: In secondary sector small scale manufacturing is the most labours absorbing and in tertiary sector various new services are new appearing like biotechnology, information technology etc.
126) Which capital would you consider the best-land, labours, physical capital or human capital?
Answer: Human Capital as the other factors are dependent on human capital.
127) What do you understand by 'people as resource'?
Answer: 'People as resource' includes the following factors:
(i) The people should be an asset and not a liability for the country.
(ii) They must contribute towards the betterment of the economy.
(iii) They must provide the economy with their skills and abilities so that they become a resource. Thus, people as resource means 'human resource'.
128) How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Answer: Human resource is different in the following ways:
(i) Land and other resources are specified, fixed or limited but human resources can be nurtured through education and health.
(ii) Human resource can bring change in other resources, while other resources cannot change or affect human resource.
(iii) Human resource can make use of land and capital. Land and capital cannot become useful on its own.
129) What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Answer: Education helps in the human capital formation in the following ways: (i) Investment in education of human resource results in the formation of human capital. (ii) One can earn higher income because of higher productivity of the more educated or better trained persons, thus contributing towards human capital formation. (iii) Investment in human resource via education and medical care can give higher rates of return in the future.
130) What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Answer: (i) Health sector development can prove useful for the economy.
(ii) Healthier the people, the more they work, and the more they produce and earn.
(iii) As it is said, 'Health is Wealth'; a healthy person's capacity to work increases and he becomes more productive and hence, earns more.
131) Is it true that educated parents invest more heavily on their children's education and why?
Answer: This is because they have realised the importance of education for themselves and their children. They are also conscious of the proper nutrition and hygiene one needs. They accordingly look after their children's needs for education at school, and good health.
132) How did countries like Japan become rich?
Answer: (i) They have invested in people, especially in the field of education and health. (ii) These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital.
(iii) Efficiency and the technology evolved by the people have made the country rich and developed.
133) What is the role of health in the working life of an individual?
Answer: (i) The health of a person makes him realise his potential and the ability to fight illnesses.
(ii) An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation and hence his country.
(iii) Health is an indispensable basis for realising one's own well-being.