Ques 1: What does Bhakti movement mean?
Ans: A series of Hindu saints & reformers started religious reform movements which adopted the method of devotion (Bhakti) to achieve the salvation their method of expression of devotion ranged from the routine worship of deities within temple & singing & chanting of devotional composition.
Ques 2: Who were Alavars?
Ans: In southern India the devotees of Vishnu were called Alvars.
Ques 3: Give the name of any four well known reformers of Bhakti movement?
Ans: Ramanand swami, Kabir, Guru Nanak dev, Mira Bai.
Ques 4: What do you mean by Sufism?
Ans: The sufis were Muslim saints who left a great impact on the Indian society, Sufism originated in Persia.
Ques 5: What is the importance of Murshid in Sufi ideology?
Ans: According to Sufism, an individual must have a religious guide (Murshid) through whom he can communicate with god. The pir is a ladder which enables a man to reach the goal of life Devotion to the Murshid is the worship of god.
Ques 6: Describe the causes of the rise of Bhakti movement?
Ans: (i). Influence of Vaishnavism
(ii). Evil practices of the Hindues
(iii). Fear of sprit of Islam
(iv). Influence of sufi sects
(v). Emergence of great reformers.
Ques 7: Describe the main Principal of Bhakti movement?
Ans: (i). Faith in god
(ii). Good deeds
(iii). Universal Brotherhood
(iv). Emotional worship
(v). Condemned idol worship
(vi). Opposed to the rigidity of caste system
(vii). Guru Bhakti
Ques 8: Discuss the influences &importance of Bhakti movement?
Ans: RELIGIOUS EFFECTS
1. Saked Hinduism
2. Lowered the prestige of the Brahmins
3. Checked the propagation of Islam
4. Emergence of Sikhism
5. Setback back to Buddhism
SOCIAL & CULTURAL IMPACT
(a) Improvement in the social relation between the Hindus & Muslims
(b) Uplift of lower class
(c) Promoted the spirit of social service
(d) Development of composite art in the society
(e) Enrichment of Literature.
Ques 9: What were the main Principle of Sufism?
Ans: (i). Worship of God
(ii). Renunciation of wordly pleasure
(iii). Non-violence & pacitism
(iv). Love of mankind
(v). Importance of Murshid
(vi). Principle of Morality
(vii). Importance of singing & Dancing in worship of Allah
Ques 10: What were Attitude of the Nayanars & Alavars sects towards the cast?
Ans: Some historians are of the view that Alvars & Nayanaras started a movement of Protest against the caste system & the dominance of Brahmans are at least made effort to reform them. This view is supported by the fact, that these Bhakti reformers came from diverse social background some of the belonged to lower classes such as Cultivaters, Artism & untouchahable some of them Barman background. The Alvars & Nayanars claimed that their compositions were as important as the Vedas. The Tamilsong of the Alvars is marked by such depth of feeling & trupiety that they are looked upon as Vaishnava Vedas. The nayanaras composed their devotional songs with the highest spiritual sentiments & set up shaivism on a strang tooting. These songs are still popular in south India.
Ques 11: What were the similarities and differences between the be-Shari’ a and ba - Shari’a Sufi traditions?
Ans: Meaning of Shari’ a: The Shari’ is the law governing the Muslim community. It is based on the Qur’an and the hadis, traditions of the Prophet including a record of his remembered words and deeds.
i) Some mystics initiated movements based on a radical interpretation of Sufi ideals. Manny scorned the khangah and took to mendicancy and observed celibacy. They ignored rituals
ii) And observed extreme forms of asceticism. They were known by different names –
iii) Qalandars, Madaris, malangs, Haidaris, etc., Because of their deliberate defiance of the
iv) Shari’s they were often referred to as be – shari’a in contrast to the ba – Shari’ a Sufis who complied with it.
v) A group of religious minded people called Sufis turned to as criticism and mysticism in
vi) Protest against the growing materialism of the caliphate as a religions and political institution. The Sufis sought an interpretation of the Qur’ an Sufis on the basis of their personal experiences. The Sufis tradition which were anti shari’ a (or the law governing the Muslim committee) are called ba – shari’ a. Similarities: Both of Sufi traditions are critical of the dogmatic definitions and scholastic methods of interpretation the Qur’ an and sunna (traditions of the prophet) adopted by theologians. Instead, they laid stress on seeking salvation15 rough devotion and love for God by following His commands, and by following. The example of Prophet Muhammad whom they considered has a perfect human being. In this way we can say that both the traditions of the Sufis i.e. be shari’a and be shari’s are same. They sought and interpretation of the Quran on the basis of Personal experience.
Ques 12: Describe the teaching of Kabir? How does he describe the ultimate reality through the poems?
Ans: (a) To achieve inward spiritual bliss
(b) Condemnation of empty ritual
(c) To faster harmony between Hinduism & Islam
(d) He believed in one formless God
(e) Rejected both Vedas & Kuran & the supremacy of the Brahmins & Mulas
(f) He opposed the caste system & image worship
(g) He taught the unity of god & the path of love & devotion
(h) He emphasized on bhakti to achieve salvation or Moksha.
Kabir gave different names of ultimate reality. In Islam these include Allah Hazrat, Khuda and pir. He also used terms taken from Vedantic traditions like alakh, nirankar, Brahman and atman.