Q1- How much is the contribution of agriculture in the net national product?
Ans: 25 per cent.
Q2. Name five such crops in the production of which India ranks first in the world.
Ans: tea, sugar, cane, jute, oilseeds and spices.
Q-3 Name three main functions of agriculture.
Ans: Providing food, raw material for industries and earning foreign exchange.
Q-4 How much was the production of food grains in India during 2005-06.
Ans: 20.83 crore tones.
Q-5 Name seven agriculture exports of India.
Ans: Tea, coffee, cashewnut, cotton, rice, tobacco and spices.
Q-6 Name four factors of low productivity of Indian agriculture.
Ans: Environmental, Economic, Institutional and technological.
Q-7 What are the four elements of Green Revolution or the package technology?
Ans: Irrigation, chemical fertilizers, high-yielding varieties of seeds and Mechanization.
Q-8 For how many hectares of land the agricultural statistics are available?
Ans: 30.5 Crore hectares.
Q-9 In which state is the intensity of cropping the highest?
Ans: Punjab 181 percentage.
Q-10 What is the major problem of Indian agriculture?
Ans: Low productivity with developed countries
Q-11 What is the solution of agriculture crops problem?
Ans: Ensured irrigation facilities and payment of proper price to farmers.
Q-12 Which are the three cropping seasons in India?
Ans: Kharif , rabi and zaid.
Q-13 Which state is the leading producer of rice?
Ans: West Bengal.
Q-14 What is meant by oilseeds?
Ans: A group of such seeds from which oil can be extracted.
Q-15 Name four coarse grains.
Ans: Jowar-bajra, maize, barley,ragi, etc.
Q-16 Name two beverages and two fiber crops of India?
Ans: beverages-Tea and coffee; fiber crops- Cotton and jute.
Q17. Describe the distribution of tea and Coffee in India.
Ans. India produced 8.5 lakh tones tea in 2003-04.
Distribution: Assam is the chief producer of tea. In West Bengal it is grown in Jalpaigudi, Darjeeling and Cooch Bihar districts. Himachal Pradesh is another area. In south it is grown in the Nilgiri hills and the slopes of Western Ghats. These areas lie in Tamil Nadu,Karnataka and Kerala.
Coffee:- Coffee is produced in karanataka. Karanataka is leading producer. This state produces 64% of the total coffee grown in India. Kerala is the second important producer. Tamil Nadu is the third important producer.
Q18. Describe the distribution pattern of horticulture crops in India.
Ans. Horticulture crops refer to vegetables and tuber crops, ornamental crops, medicinal and aromatic plants and spices. Almost all the fruits and vegetables are found in the world are grown in India.
Fruit Crops: India leads in the production of mangoes. It is grown from Utter Pradesh to Kerala, Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of mangoes. Orange of Nagpur, banana of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and other south states are famous. India also grows apples, pears, apricot etc. in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Grapes are grown in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Among the spices black pepper and cardamom are grown on hills of Western Ghats. India grows and exports large quantity of cashew nut grown in Kerala.
Coconut producing states are Kerala, tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karanataka, vegetables of wide variety are grown in India particularly near the big cities. Medicinal herbs are grown in hilly areas of Uttaranchal.
Q19. What are the achievements of Green Revolution?
Ans. Achievements of Green Revolution:
1. There is a remarkable increase in the farm production and productivity. The production of food grains is 21 crores in 2003-04.
2. The country has become self-sufficient in good grain production.
3. The income of farmers has increased and their quality of life has also improved.
4. The production of pulses was 99 lakh tones in 1965-66 which is increase 1.49 crore tones in 2003-04.
5. The production of oil seeds was recorded 2.5 crore tones in 2003-04.
6. Production of wheat rose six times or 562%
7. There was three-fold rise in the production of rice. During this period production of rice rose from 3.06 crore tones.
8. The supply of raw material to industries like sugarcane, cotton etc. recorded a remarkable increase.
9. The food security helped the nation to peruse other policies to raise its prestige in the commodity of nations.
10. The increase in the level of income made the villages more active in other spheres of life of the people.
11. Great variety came in agricultural products and consequently the price did not increase much.
12. The changes came in the thinking process of farmers.
Q20. Why is agricultural productivity still low in India? Write three main reasons.
Ans. The agricultural productivity is still low in India. The reasons are as under:
1. Inadequate irrigation facilities: Agriculture in India depends on monsoonal rainfall. But to uncertain and variable rainfall irrigation is necessary. In our country, only 22%cultivated land is irrigated, whereas it is necessary to irrigate at least 50% of the cultivated land to make it success.
2. Loss of fertility: due to continuous agriculture over a long period, the fertility of soil is declining. That is why the productivity is low.
3. Poor technique of production: The India farmers have been using old and inefficient methods due to which there is low productivity. Use of better quality seeds and pesticides can increase the productivity.
4. Lack of mechanized farming: In our country agriculture is mostly intensive. Human labour is used to get maximum output. Use of modern machines is limited due to low purchasing power.
Q21. Rice and wheat producing traditionally areas presently overlap each other. Justify this statement with three suitable examples.
Ans. Rice and wheat producing traditional areas presently overlap each other because of the following reasons.
1. Means of irrigation have been developed therefore the areas where rainfall is short for the cultivation of rice the means of irrigation fulfill the requirement. For example, in Punjab and Haryana.
2. Wheat is also produced in those areas where rice is produced such as in maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
3. Use of fertilizers have also made this possible the overlapping of the areas of wheat and rice each other. Rice is produced in the areas of wheat such as Uttar Pradesh, Haryana etc. and wheat is produced in Bihar and West Bengal also.
Q:22-Inspite of significant development the Indian agriculture suffer from certain problems. Discuss
Ans:-It is the true that there are significant development in Indian agriculture but it is still low in comparison to the development countries of the world. Several factors are responsible for this situation these are: -
1) Environmental Factors
The most serious problem is the erratic nature of monsoon. Period of rainfall is limited and it is highly variable and uncertain. This situation effects the agriculture development.
2) Economics Factors (self explain)
3)Institutional Factors (self explain)
4)Technological Factors (self explain)
Agriculture techniques are old and inefficient mechanization is very limited. Only one third is under irrigation. These condition keeps the agriculture Productivity and intensification of farming at low level.