Ques 1: Which Governor-General introduced the Subsidary Alliance? Name the four major powers accepting it.
Ans: Subsidary alliance was introduced by Lord Wliesley. Hyderabad, Awadh, Mysore, Tanjore, Surat, etc were the four major powers who accepted it.
Ques 2: Which English lady defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur?
Ans: Miss Wheeler defended herself bravely against the Indian rebels in Kanpur.
Ques 3: Who was the last Nawab of Awadh? Where was he sent on Pension?
Ans: Wajid Ali Shah was last Nawab of Awadh. He was sent to Calcutta on pension.
Ques 4: What were the policies and administrative causes of the Revolt of 1857?
Ans: (a) Imperialist policy of the British administrators.
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
(c) Abolition of pensions and Titles.
(d) Disrespect to the Mughal Emperor.
(e) Annexation of Awadh
(f)Misuse of Subsidiary alliance.
Ques 5: What were the causes of the failure of the 1857 Revolt?
Ans: (a) Breaking out before of the fixed date.
(b) Co-operation of the native states to the British.
(c) Lack of co-operation from the Elite.
(d) Limited resources of the Rebels.
(e)Absence of a common ideal.
(f) Diplomacy of the British.
Ques 6: Discuss the nature of revolt of 1857
Ans: (a) Only a Sepoy mutiny –
(i) The main ground for the uprising had been prepared by the soldiers.
(ii) Important and immediate causes of the revolt was the use of greased cartridges.
(iii) The revolt did not spread throughout the country.
(iv) The revolt did not enjoy the cooperation and support of the common people.
(b) First war of Independence – Lakhs of artisans, farmers and soldiers struggled united against the British rule.
(c) Hindu and Muslim took actively part in the movement.
(d) The masses took active part in the struggle against the British at almost all centres of uprisings.
(e) It had country wide presence.
Ques 7: What were the social, economical religious and military causes of 1857 revolt?
Ans: Economic Causes :-
(a) Drain of wealth
(b) Destruction of Indian industries, trade & commerce.
(c) Exorbitant rate of land revenue.
(d) Resumption of Inami or rent-free lands.
(e) Unemployment and poverty among the masses.
Social Causes :-
(a) Maltreatment of the Indians.
(b) Interference in the social life of Indians.
(c) Spread of Western Education.
(d) propagation of Christianity.
Military Causes :-
(a) Unrest among the Indian soldiers.
(b) Increase ratio of Indian soldiers.
(c) faulty distribution of troops.
(d) General Service Enlistment Act.
(e) Greased cartridges.
Ques 8: How were the lives of forest dwellers transformed in the 16th -17th centuries.
Ans: 1.The business encouraged forest clearance zamindars and jotedars turned uninitiated lands in to rice fields to the British, extension of settled agriculture why necessary to enlarge the sources of land revenue. produce crops for export and establish the basis of a settled, ordered society.
2. The British saw forest people as savage impurely and primitive and difficult to govern, so they felt that the forest had to be leaped settled agriculture established and forest people dammed civilized and persuaded to give up hunting and take to plough agriculture.
3.in the 1770s the British embarked on a brutal policy to extermination, hunting the Paharias down and killing them then by 1780s ,augustas Cleveland the collector of Bhagalpur purposed a policy of polification. The Paharias chief were given an annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of their man.
4.Some Paharia chief refused the complains continued, the Paharias withdraw deep into the mountains insulting themselves from Lositle forces and carrying on a war with the out bidders so when Buchanan travelled through the region in the winter of 1880/1881,the Paharia naturally viewed him with suspicion and distrust.
5.The Santhals themselves were powering into area, cleaning forest, cutting down timber, ploughing land and growing rice and cotton,this leades why Sindhus Manjhi.
Ques 9: What explains the anger of the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders?
Ans: 1. By 1830s prices of agricultural products fell sharply.
2. Decline in peasants income revenue could rarely be paid without a loan from money lenders.
3. Ryots found difficult to pay it back, debt mounted.
4. Ryots needed more loan to buy their everyday needs.
5. Sahukar’s export merchants in Maharashtra stopped long term credit and started demanding repayment of debt.
6. Petition after petition, Ryots complained of the injustice of insensitiveness and the violation of custom.
7. The Ryots came to see the money lenders as devious and deceitful.
8. Limitation law was passed to check the accumulation of interest overtime.
9. Deeds and bonds appeared as symbols of the new oppressive system.
Ques 10: Source based Questions :-
Read the following passage and answer the following questions given below:
We get significant information from Azamgarh proclmattion. 25 Aug, 8157 as to what the rebels wanted. Section III. Regarding Public servants
It is not a secret things, that under the British Government, native employed in the civil and military service have little respect, low pay and no manner of influence; and all he post of dignity and emolument in both the departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen .... Therefore, all the native in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and adjuring their loyalty to the English side with the Badshahi Government and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees for the present, and be entitled to high post in the future...... Section IV – Regarding Artisans. It is entitled that the Europeans, by the introduction of English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, etc., out of employ, and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary. But under the Badshahi Government the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity therefore, these artisan sought to renounce the English Service.
Ques (i): How did the introduction of English affect the artisans?
Ans: The Artisans were deprived of their employment. The cheap machine-made goods of Britain captured the Indian markets. Consequently, the every description of native artisan was reduced to beggary.
Ques (ii): How would the condition of the artisan improve under the Badshahi Government?
Ans: Under the Badshahi Government, the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas and the rich.
Ques (iii): Why were the public servants dissatisfied with the British Government?
Ans: Under the British government, natives employed in the civil and military service had no respect. Their salaries were low and they had no power or influence.
Ques (iv): What did the rebel proclamation repeatedly appeal for?
Ans: The rebel proclamation repeatedly appealed that the Indians should take care of their religion and interests and they should take care of their religion and interests and they should side with the Badshahi
Ques 11: Why did the Indian think during British period that their religion was in danger?
Ans: (i) Conservative Indians were angered by the various social reforms initiated by the British. The abolition of sati, legalizing of widow remarriages were regarded as unwanted interference in Indian Social.
(ii) Indian sentiments were also hurt by the Christian Missionaries.
(iii) In 1850, the government passed the Hindu property law under which even after converting to Christianity one could inherit one's ancestral property.
(iv) The people's resentment was further fuelled by the Maulvis and Brahmins whose cry that their respective religions were in danger cloaked their selfish interests as these classes now lost their former importance.
Ques 12: What was the system of Subsidiary Alliance? How did it help the Britishers to consolidate their position in India?
Ans: The Subsidiary Alliance was a Boat of agreement between the British and on Indian ruler on the basis of Mutual understanding for performing administrative, military and political function.
Provisions of the Subsidiary Alliance:
(i) The Indian ruler accepting the Alliance would not enter into alliance with any other power.
(ii) Would not declare was against any power without permission of the British.
(iii) World allows the British resident to stay in his state.
(iv) Would acknowledge the Britishers as the paramount power.
(v) Would maintain some British force at his own expense in his state.
(vi) In return for accepting all these condition, the British would protect the Indian ruler from internal and external danger.
Advantages of the Subsidiary System to the British.
(i) The British were able to raise army at the expense of the Indian rulers.
(ii) They were able to raise army at the expense of the Indian rulers.
(iii) Successful in checking the French.
(iv) Increased their control without waging war.
(v) Chances of revolts on the part of Indian ruler were minimized.
Ques 13: “ A very high degree of Hindu Muslim Unity was observed in the 1857 revolt” Explain with example.
Ans: Unity of Hindus and Muslims : A very high degree of Hindu Muslim unity was reflected in the 1857 Revolt. There was scarcely a man of either faith who did not show unity. An English man wrote, "....... the infanticide Rajput, the bigoted Brahman, the fanatic Mussulman and the luxury living, Martha joined together in the cause. Cow killer and the cow worshipper, the pig hater and the pig eater revolted jointly." Several Hindu rulers accepted Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader. Bahadur Shah had many prominent Hindu officers, who fought together against the Britishers. In Awadh prominent leaders of the revolt belonged to both the communities.
Ques 14: Analyse the causes of the unrest against the British rule in India.
"The revolt of 1857 came as a culmination of popular discontent with British policies and exploitation, "In the light of the statement explain the reasons of discontent of Indian people before 1857.
Ans: (i) Ruin of Indian economy
(ii) Wealth drain from India
(iii) Decay of Indian handcrafts
(iv) Dispossession of several Indian rulers from their kingdoms.
(v) Discriminatory social policies of the rulers.
(vi) Interference in religious affairs of the people of India
(vii) Low salaries to Indian Military personal as compared with their Europeur counterparts
(viii) Arrogance of the English people.
Ques 15: Did the Revolt of 1857 have a popular character? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans: Yes, it was a popular Revolt.
(i) Participation by civilians.
(ii) Common Symbol like chapatis and Red Lotus
(iii) Involvement of several regions
(iv) Hindu-Muslim unity.
(v) Involvement of the local leaders of different part of India.
Ques 16: Explain the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857.
"The weaknesses of the Revolt were deeper" Explain why the Revolt failed in spite of some patriotic leaders.
Ans: (i) Lack of a common cause
(ii) Lack of National consciousness
(iii) Uncoordinated efforts
(iv) Absence of effective Leadership
(v) Lack of Nation wide Dimensions
(vi) Loyalty of Several Rulers to the British
(vii) Lack of Resources
(viii) Lack of Good Generals
(ix) Regular supply of the British forces
(x) The British Supremacy on the sea.
(xi) British Diplomacy.
(xii) Hostility of several indigenous rulers.