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Q.45. How tribal people could be encouraged to get an education?
Tribal people could be encouraged in the following ways to get an education:
- Scholarships should be given to their children.
- Free books should be provided to their children.
- More and more schools should be opened in their areas.
- Scholarships should be given to those brilliant students who want to go to foreign countries for higher studies.
- Regional colleges should be opened in their areas so that occupation-related education should be given to them.
Q.46. Which steps are being taken by state governments for the welfare of tribal people?
- They are given free education.
- Their children are given free books to read.
- Their children are given encouragement to study in the form of scholarships.
- The government is arranging irrigation facilities in their areas.
- Small-scale industries are being developed in their areas.
- The government is trying hard to develop means of transport and communication in their areas.
- They are being provided many basic facilities like health services, drinking water, legal services, etc.
Q.47. What was Civil Rights Protection Act, 1976?
Untouchability Offenses Act was passed in 1955. Although it was implemented in the country, it had many shortcomings. First of all, it was not properly implemented and people still practiced untouchability. So to remove these shortcomings, Civil Rights Protection Act was passed in 1976. According to this law, if anyone has been punished by law to practice untouchability then he will not be allowed to contest election for Parliament and state legislative assemblies. If any government official is found guilty of practicing untouchability then he will be punished by law. A report of steps taken by the central government regarding this will be produced every year in Parliament. State governments were also directed regarding this.
Q.48. What type of status of women was there in the Vedic Age?
The status of women in Vedic age was very good because:
- Females had many rights in the family.
- They had the right to get an education and to keep the property.
- Females used to perform yajnas at that age.
- They were very much equal to males from the point of view of knowledge.
- Widow remarriages were there in the society.
Q.49. What are the reasons for the improvement in the status of women?
- First of all Raja Ram Mohan Roy raised his voice to uplift the status of women and widow remarriage. Sati Prohibition Act, 1829 and Widow Remarriage Act, 1856 were passed because of his efforts. His efforts had removed two social evils of society.
- After this many institutions of India raised their voice for women like Prarthna Samaj, Satya Shodhak Samaj, Arya Samaj, Brahmo Samaj, etc. They raised their voice for the education of women and their uplifter. Ramabai Ranade and Govind Ranade were very famous regarding this.
- After this, Annie Besant, Kasturba Gandhi also raised their voice and played a very important role in improving their status.
- Many laws were made after independence with which females got a number of rights.
- Western education has brought many changes in their status.
Q.50. What were the reasons for the lower status of women in Indian society?
- Male dominant society in India.
- Economic dependence of females over males.
- Illiteracy of females.
- Joint families in society.
- Prevalence of many social evils like child marriage, Sati system, no widow remarriage.
Q.51. Who started the reform movement among Muslims and how?
Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan started the reform movement among Muslims. In 1857, he observed that Muslims are being suppressed by the Britishers. He appealed to Muslims to remain loyal to Britishers so that Britishers could work for the uplift of Muslims. He brought Muslims on one stage and told them not to go against Britishers. He founded many schools and colleges and one of them, later on, became famous Aligarh Muslim University. He stressed women’s education. He opposed the Purdah system and the divorce system of Muslims by saying ‘Talaq’ thrice so that Muslim women could be uplifted. He also established many orphanages. Except this, Ahmedia Andolan was also started to bring reforms among Muslims. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan also worked a lot in N.W.F.P. for the uplifter of Muslims.
Q.52. What do you know about Minority Commission?
Minority Commission was established in 1978. It has one chairman and one member and both of them belong to minority groups of the country. Commission listens to the grievances of minorities and evaluates their condition from time to time. It also suggests some measures to the government for the welfare of the minorities. There is another commission for lingual minorities. In 1993, National Minority Commission was established in place of the Minority Commission.
Q.53. Which Disabilities were faced by Scheduled Castes?
- People of scheduled castes were not allowed to perform religious rituals and they were restricted to read religious books, Upanishads, etc.
- People of scheduled castes were not allowed to use public places like temples, wells, panchayats, roads, etc.
- People of scheduled castes were not allowed to get an education because ancient education was based on religion and they were restricted to read religious books.
- People of scheduled castes were working at the houses of higher castes and in lieu of that, they were given very little food and money. That is why their position was very low.
- They were even not allowed to come closer to the people of higher castes.
Q.54. What were the religious disabilities of Scheduled Castes?
Scheduled castes were restricted to perform any religious activity or religious ritual. They were also not allowed to read religious books, Upnishads, or ‘shlokas’. Education in ancient times was based on religion. That is why scheduled caste people were also not allowed to get an education. They were restricted to enter the temples and worship God. If any individual tried to break the rules made by higher castes, he/she was severely punished by the people of higher castes.
Q.55. What were the educational disabilities of Scheduled Castes?
Education in ancient times was based on religion. Education was taken from religious books, Upanishads, etc. But the people of Scheduled Castes were not allowed to receive an education because they were restricted to read religious books or take religious education. They were not allowed to take admission in any Gurukul. But even if anyone was able to do so then he had to face the very rude behavior of others.
Q.56. What does Article 338 of the Constitution state?
Article 338 of the Constitution states that the President will direct the Governors of all the States to appoint special officers for the development of Scheduled Castes and Tribes. Those special officers will research the problems related to Scheduled Castes and Tribes and will give their report to the governor and the President. But this provision no more exists now.
Q.57. What does Article 16 of the Constitution state?
According to Article 16 of the Constitution, there will be no discrimination against any citizen of the country on the basis of religion, caste, color, race, etc. The government will not discriminate against anyone on any basis and will try to appoint lower castes’ people in government institutions.
Q.58. Explain the status of women of different ages.
The status of women in the Vedic age was very good. She was considered as necessary to fulfill the social and religious activities in this age. The respect of women was reduced in the post-Vedic age. Child marriages started due to which it became very difficult to get an education. Her position became lower in Smriti age. She was kept all the times under observation and her respect remained only in the form of a mother. In the medieval age, due to the caste system, she had to face many types of restrictions. But many voices were raised in the modern age to uplift her status and that is why now she enjoys equal status with males.
Q.59. What were the religious disabilities of women?
Female was considered as necessary to complete religious rituals in Vedic age. But with the passage of time, her status changed and her social status became lower. Her religious knowledge came to an end due to child marriage and that is why she was kept away from Yajnas. As she was unable to get an education, her religious education and knowledge also came to an end. Her religious functions came to an end due to the dominance of males. Her religion and duty remained confined only to serve her husband and the family.
Q.60. What changes are coming in the status of women?
How far did the status of women improve in contemporary India? Give examples to support your answer.
- Females are getting education due to the advent of education.
- Females are now doing jobs in offices and industries due to industrialization.
- Her mentality is now changing due to the development of western culture and now she has come to know about her rights.
- The Indian government has made many laws to uplift her status which is why her status is improving.
- Now she has come out of the four walls of the house due to the disintegration of joint families.
Q.61. Which problems are faced by the tribal people?
- Tribal people live at far off places in forests or on mountains where means of transport and roads have not been constructed yet. That is why they are unaware of today’s development.
- These people are exploited by people of other castes. Moneylenders charge more interest from them if the need for any loan arises. Even people buy their things at less rates because of which they are very poor.
- These days new industries are coming forward where owners of industries give them very little pay for their work. That is why their economic condition is deteriorating day by day.
- These days government officials are going in their areas and interfering in their internal matters.
Q.62. Which types of disabilities were removed by Untouchability Offenses Act 1955?
According to the Untouchability Offenses Act, 1955:
- No one will be restricted to go to any temple or any religious place.
- Everyone is free to go to hotels, parks, clubs, etc.
- Everyone will be free to take water to drink or for any other purpose from any well or pond or river.
- Anyone found guilty of practicing untouchability can be punished and fined by law.
Q.63. What was the impact of reform movements on the status of women?
Reform movements were started due to the efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and later on, many other social reformers came forward. All of them worked a lot for the uplifter of women because of which the following imparts were exerted on the status of women:
- Now, widow remarriages have been started.
- The system of Sati has been eliminated from society.
- Child marriages have been reduced to a great extent.
- Females are now getting every type of higher education.
- The caste system has been reduced because which the status of women has been improved.
Q.64. What type of status do women enjoy in the modern age?
Their status is very good because:
- They have every type of right in the family. Every type of decision of the family is being taken with her advice.
- Widow remarriages have been started, child marriages and polygamy has been reduced to a great extent. They have the right to take a divorce and to get every type of education.
- They are given many facilities these days to take education. Free education, scholarships are some of the measures with which they are being motivated by the government to get an education.
- Females are actively participating in the political field. Indira Gandhi, Sonia Gandhi, Jayalalitha, Ambika Soni, Sushma Swaraj, Uma Bharti, Vasundhra Raje Scindhia are some of its examples.
Q.65. Name some laws with which the status of women has improved after independence.
- Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
- Special Marriage Act, 1954
- Hindu Succession Act, 1956
- Untouchability Offence Act, 1955
- Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1978
- Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and 1986
- Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act, 1976.
Q.66. Which type of education should be given to women?
- Women should be given such education with which they could become conscious about their rights.
- Their education should be such with which they could become self-dependent.
- Their education should be about their health, eating habits, family planning.
- Their education should be about their development.
Q.67. How and when reform movements were started among Sikhs?
Sikhism was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Till the 19th century, many evils and problems came in Sikhism. Gurudwaras were under the occupation of Mahants and they made these Gurudwaras their places of leisure. These Mahants were under the complete protection of Britishers. In the decade 1880, Singh Sabha was established at many places with the aim to stop the conversion of Sikhs into Christians, to motivate the Sikhs to stick to their religion, and to propagate the Sikh religion. After this, in the decade of 1920, Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee was established so that Gurudwaras should be taken back from the occupation of Mahants. After a lot of effort, it got successful. After this, the committee has been working for the reforms among Sikhs and to propagate the Sikh religion.
Q.68. What role minorities can play in maintaining national unity?
- Minorities should take education so that they can uplift themselves from the issues of religion or caste.
- Social intercourse among Hindus arid Muslims should be increased so that they could remain away from communal violence.
- Muslims should take more education to uplift their economic condition and status.
- The government should provide every type of security to the minorities so that they could feel secure and work for national unity.
Q.69. Give two definitions of Untouchable Castes.
- According to D. N. Majumdar, “The untouchable castes were those who suffered from various social and political disabilities many of which were traditionally prescribed and socially enforced by the higher castes.”
- According to Dr. K. N. Sharma, “Untouchable castes were those by whose touch a person can become impure and he needed to perform some rituals to become pure.”
Q.70. What is Untouchability?
The caste system was of great importance in Indian society. Higher castes were differentiated from lower castes by the practice of untouchability. The concept of untouchability stated that the people of higher castes would become impure after the touch of the lower castes or even with their shadow. It meant that even if the people of higher castes came under the shadow of the lower caste then they would become impure. Under such circumstances, they would have to become pure again by taking bath with ‘Gangajal’ or will have to perform certain religious rituals. But now Untouchability has been declared illegal according to the Untouchability Offenses Act, 1955.
Q.71. What are the results of Disabilities?
- The conflict between higher and lower castes increased due to disabilities.
- One of the evil effects of disabilities was that the economic life of people of lower castes became even lower.
- Many atrocities were committed on the scheduled castes due to these disabilities.
- Living standards of people of scheduled castes became low due to these disabilities.
Q.72. What were the social disabilities of Scheduled Castes?
Scheduled castes not only suffered religious disabilities but social disabilities as well. They had the lowest place in Hindu society according to the caste system. They were not considered as a part of Hindu society but were considered as different from society. That is why they were living out of cities or villages. They came to do their work before sunrise and went back during the dark or before sunrise. If even their shadow came in the way of people of higher castes then that person of higher caste was considered impure and he had to either take bath or perform certain rituals to become pure again.
Q.73. What were the economic disabilities of Scheduled Castes?
The main occupations of the Scheduled Caste were cleaning making leather, etc. These occupations were considered very low in a society which is why these people were given very little money for their work. They were unable to meet even the basic needs of their life. In case of any marriage, birth, or death the family, had to take a loan from the moneylenders and were unable to pay it back. In this way due to less income from their work, their life was full of poverty.
Q.74. What does Article 17 of the Constitution states?
According to Article 17 of the Constitution, untouchability is a criminal offense. Everyone is restricted to practise it. No one is allowed to call anyone Untouchable. If anyone practices untouchability then he will be given punishment according to the judicial system of the country.
Q.75. Explain the Untouchability Offenses Act of 1955.
Untouchability Offenses Act 1955. The custom of untouchability is coming from the ages. Under this custom, people of lower castes are considered untouchables, and if they touch any person of higher caste then that higher caste person was considered impure. He had to take bath again with Gangajal to become pure again. That is why the lower caste people were suppressed for ages. Although many provisions were made in Constitution against this custom this custom was still prevailing in Indian Society. That is why the Indian Government had passed an Act called Untouchability Offenses Act 1955, in which it is said that if any person will practice untouchability then he will be given three months of imprisonment or Rs. 500 fine or both.
Q.76. What were the causes of the low status of women?
- In a joint family system, females had to live under many types of restrictions in the four walls of the house and their position became low.
- The position of females became lower due to the dominance of males in society and due to patriarchal families.
- Females were not able to get an education due to child marriage with which her position deteriorated.
- She was not aware of her rights due to illiteracy and that is why her status was lower in society.
- She was economically dependent upon males because of which she had to face lower status in society.
Q.77. What were the economic disabilities of women?
Females also had to face many economic disabilities. They had the right to keep the property in the Vedic age but later on, this right came to an end. In the medieval period, she was neither allowed to keep property nor was she given any share in her father’s property. The property, in a joint family, was in the names of males of the family. It was not given to her at the time of the division of property. Her work was only to serve the family and her husband. She had no freedom related to money. Economically, she was completely dependent upon her father, husband, and her sons.
Q.78. What were the various women related issues taken up by the reformers in Indian history?
- Social reformers raised their voice against Sati Pratha and declared it illegal. It was banned by law in 1829 by the British Government.
- Reformers raised their voice against child marriage and urged the British government to fix the minimum age for marriage. The British Govt responded in an affirmative manner.
- They propagated in favor of widow remarriage which is why the British Govt, passed a law in 1856 to give it a legal sanction.
- Reformers always opposed the caste system. That is why they raised their voice against discrimination of women given in the caste system.
- They also opposed illiteracy among women and raised their voices in favor of women’s education. They even established many girls’ schools.
- They also opposed the purdah system and described it as a disrespect to women.
Q.79. Describe for example the grass-root democratic functioning in tribal areas.
Grass-root democratic functioning in tribal areas:-
- Tribal areas have had a rich tradition of grass-root democratic functioning, a typical egalitarian social organization.
For example – Among the Khasis, Jaintias and the Garo have their own traditional political institutions that have existed for 100 years.
These institutions were fairly well developed and functioned at the village level, clan level, and state level.
The political system of Khasis, each clan had its own council known as Dorbar Kur’ presided by the clan headman.