Infrastructure Current Affairs- 2 Notes | Study Economy for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains) - Russian

Russian: Infrastructure Current Affairs- 2 Notes | Study Economy for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains) - Russian

The document Infrastructure Current Affairs- 2 Notes | Study Economy for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains) - Russian is a part of the Russian Course Economy for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains).
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 Page 1


ECONOMY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PART - 2
ENERGY
Page 2


ECONOMY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PART - 2
ENERGY
PRADHAN MANTRI JI-VAN YOJANA
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN 
(Jaiv Indhan-Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Y ojana
Providing financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other 
renewable feedstock. 
The scheme focuses to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a 
suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this 
area.
The ethanol produced by the scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing 
Companies (OMCs) to further enhance the blending percentage under EBP Programme.
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has targeted to achieve 10% blending percentage of Ethanol in 
petrol by 2022.
Centre for High T echnology (CHT), a technical body under the aegis of MoP&NG, will be the 
implementation Agency for the scheme.
Page 3


ECONOMY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PART - 2
ENERGY
PRADHAN MANTRI JI-VAN YOJANA
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN 
(Jaiv Indhan-Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Y ojana
Providing financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other 
renewable feedstock. 
The scheme focuses to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a 
suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this 
area.
The ethanol produced by the scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing 
Companies (OMCs) to further enhance the blending percentage under EBP Programme.
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has targeted to achieve 10% blending percentage of Ethanol in 
petrol by 2022.
Centre for High T echnology (CHT), a technical body under the aegis of MoP&NG, will be the 
implementation Agency for the scheme.
ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL PROGRAMME
Government of India launched Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme in 2003 
for undertaking blending of ethanol in Petrol to address environmental concerns 
due to fossil fuel burning, 
provide remuneration to farmers, 
subsidize crude imports and 
achieve forex savings. 
Presently, EBP is being run in 21 States and 4 UTs of the country. 
Under EBP programme, OMCs are to blend upto 10% of ethanol in Petrol. 
The present policy allows procurement of ethanol produced from molasses and non-food feed 
stock like celluloses and lignocelluloses material including petrochemical route.
Page 4


ECONOMY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PART - 2
ENERGY
PRADHAN MANTRI JI-VAN YOJANA
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN 
(Jaiv Indhan-Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Y ojana
Providing financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other 
renewable feedstock. 
The scheme focuses to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a 
suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this 
area.
The ethanol produced by the scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing 
Companies (OMCs) to further enhance the blending percentage under EBP Programme.
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has targeted to achieve 10% blending percentage of Ethanol in 
petrol by 2022.
Centre for High T echnology (CHT), a technical body under the aegis of MoP&NG, will be the 
implementation Agency for the scheme.
ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL PROGRAMME
Government of India launched Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme in 2003 
for undertaking blending of ethanol in Petrol to address environmental concerns 
due to fossil fuel burning, 
provide remuneration to farmers, 
subsidize crude imports and 
achieve forex savings. 
Presently, EBP is being run in 21 States and 4 UTs of the country. 
Under EBP programme, OMCs are to blend upto 10% of ethanol in Petrol. 
The present policy allows procurement of ethanol produced from molasses and non-food feed 
stock like celluloses and lignocelluloses material including petrochemical route.
QUICK PRIMER ON BIOFUELS
Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels 
primarily produced from biomass, 
and can be used to replace or can be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other 
fossil fuels 
for transport, stationary, portable and other applications. 
Crops used to make biofuels are generally either high in sugar (such as 
sugarcane, sugarbeet, and sweet sorghum), 
starch (such as maize and tapioca) or 
oils (such as soybean, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower).
Page 5


ECONOMY
INFRASTRUCTURE
PART - 2
ENERGY
PRADHAN MANTRI JI-VAN YOJANA
Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN 
(Jaiv Indhan-Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Y ojana
Providing financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass and other 
renewable feedstock. 
The scheme focuses to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector and support this nascent industry by creating a 
suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing Research & Development in this 
area.
The ethanol produced by the scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing 
Companies (OMCs) to further enhance the blending percentage under EBP Programme.
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has targeted to achieve 10% blending percentage of Ethanol in 
petrol by 2022.
Centre for High T echnology (CHT), a technical body under the aegis of MoP&NG, will be the 
implementation Agency for the scheme.
ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL PROGRAMME
Government of India launched Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme in 2003 
for undertaking blending of ethanol in Petrol to address environmental concerns 
due to fossil fuel burning, 
provide remuneration to farmers, 
subsidize crude imports and 
achieve forex savings. 
Presently, EBP is being run in 21 States and 4 UTs of the country. 
Under EBP programme, OMCs are to blend upto 10% of ethanol in Petrol. 
The present policy allows procurement of ethanol produced from molasses and non-food feed 
stock like celluloses and lignocelluloses material including petrochemical route.
QUICK PRIMER ON BIOFUELS
Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels 
primarily produced from biomass, 
and can be used to replace or can be used in addition to diesel, petrol or other 
fossil fuels 
for transport, stationary, portable and other applications. 
Crops used to make biofuels are generally either high in sugar (such as 
sugarcane, sugarbeet, and sweet sorghum), 
starch (such as maize and tapioca) or 
oils (such as soybean, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower).
CATEGORIES OF BIOFUELS
Four categories -
First generation biofuels - Made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using 
conventional technology. 
Common first-generation biofuels include Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, 
Biogas.
Second generation biofuels - These are produced from non-food crops, such as 
cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). 
Examples include advanced biofuels like biohydrogen, biomethanol.
Third generation biofuels - These are produced from micro-organisms like algae.
Fourth Generation – Also, capture the atmospheric CO2.
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