1. Manufacturing is production of goods in large quantities after processing raw materials to more valuable products.
2. Classification of Industries is done on the basis of their main role, capital investment, ownership, source of raw materials and the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
3. Large Scale Industries employ a large number of labourers.
4. Small Scale Industries employ a small number of labourers.
5. Heavy Industries use heavy and bulky raw materials.
6. Light Industries use light raw materials.
7. Manufacturing is considered as the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular.
8. The NMCC (National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council) was set up when it was felt that, with appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.
9. Industrial locations are influenced by availability of raw materials, labour, capital, power and market. It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place.
10. Agro-based industries : Industries based on agricultural raw materials. For example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, woolen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles, sugar industry.
11. Cotton textiles : It occupies an unique position in Indian economy, contributes 14% of industrial production. Provides employment to 35 million persons directly. Earlier the cotton textile industries were located in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Today, they are spread over 80 towns and cities of India. Scarcity of good-quality cotton, obsolete machinery, erratic power supply, low productivity of labour and stiff competition are some of the problems faced by the cotton textiles industry.
12. Jute textiles : There are about 70 jute mills in India and most of the jute is produced in West Bengal. Mainly in the Hugli basin produced in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Tripura.
13. Sugar : There are 460 sugar mills in the country. 50% of them are found in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are also important producers of sugar in the country.
14. Mineral-based Industries : Industries using minerals as their raw materials — iron and steel, cement, chemical industries, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, fertiliser industry, etc.
Iron and Steel Industry :
(i) The iron works of Kulti, Burnpur started local production in 1870.
(ii) The first modern steel plant was set up at Jamshedpur in 1907.
(iii) Today there are 10 primary integrated iron and steel plants and around 200 mini steel plants in the country.
(iv) Raw materials used in this industry are iron ore, coal, limestone and manganese ore.
(v) The location of this industry is decided by the availability of raw materials. All the important iron and steel plants are located in the north-eastern and southern parts of the Indian Peninsula.
(vi) Only Visakhapatnam has a coastal location.
(vii) These plants are managed by the Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL)
(viii) India produces about 32.8 million tonne of steel and ranks ninth among the world crude steel producers.
Aluminium Smelting :
(i) Aluminium is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
(ii) It is used as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead.
(iii) In the production of one tonne of aluminium, 6 tonnes of bauxite and 18,600 kWh of electricity is required.
(iv) The availability of electricity and bauxite decides the location of this industry.
(v) The 8 aluminium plants in the country are located in Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(vi) India produces over 600 million tonnes of aluminium per annum.
Chemical Industry :
(i) Heavy inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, caustic soda and soda ash. They are widely spread around the country.
Sulphuric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, paints and dyes.
Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents.
(ii) Heavy organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals. These chemical plants are located near oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
(iii) The chemical industries contribute 14% of the production of entire manufacturing sector.
Fertiliser Industry :
(i) The first plant was set up at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu.
(ii) With the setting up of a plant at Sindri by the Fertiliser Corporation of India (FCI) in 1951, the production of fertilisers increased.
(iii) With the onset of the Green Revolution, this industry was set up in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala.
(iv) Other important producers are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
(v) There are 57 fertiliser units manufacturing nitrogenous fertilisers, 29 for urea and 9 for ammonium sulphate as a by-product, 68 other small units produce single super phosphate
Cement Industry :
(i) Cement is used for the construction of buildings, houses, factories, roads and dams.
(ii) The raw materials used are limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum, coal and electric power are also used.
(iii) The first cement plant was set up at Chennai in 1904. At present, there are 119 large and over 300 mini cement plants in India.
(iv) Indian cement is in great demand in South and East Asia, Middle East and Africa because of its superior quality.
15. Automobiles : Commercial vehicles like trucks, passenger buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, etc., are manufactured in large numbers. India is the second largest producer of three wheelers. The industries producing bicycles, scooters and bicycles are distributed around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
16. Electronic Industry : Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other major electronic goods producing centres are Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Pune, Lucknow and Coimbatore. Many Software Technology Parks have also developed.
17. Industries create four types of pollution, namely air, water, land and noise.
18. Air pollution is caused due to the presence of carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Dust, fume, mist spray and smoke contain both types of particles.
19. Water pollution : Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilisers, plastics and rubber are some common pollutants. The principal industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refinery, tannery and electroplating.
20. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot-water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
21. Noise pollution means unwanted, extra, noise created due to industrial machineries etc.
22. Measures to Control Environmental Degradation :