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Key Concepts: Forest & Wildlife Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 PDF Download

  1. Humans and living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are dependent on the system for our own existence.
  2. Forests play a key role in the ecological system as primary producers on which all other living things depend.
    Key Concepts: Forest & Wildlife Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10Fig: A NASA photo of India's North Sentinel Island covered with forest
  3. India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity and has nearly 8% of the total number of species in the world.
  4. At least 10% of India’s recorded wild flora and 20% of its mammals are on the threatened list.
  5. Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) the existing plants and animal species can be classified as Normal, Endangered, Vulnerable,Rare, Endemic and Extinct species.
  6. The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry, and mining activities.
  7. Large-scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests.
  8. The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue but is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity.
  9. Conservation in the background of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential.
  10. Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems — water, soil and air.
  11. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972.
  12. The conservation projects focus on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components.
    Fig: Forest around Nohkalikai fall in Meghalaya, an eastern state of India Fig: Forest around Nohkalikai fall in Meghalaya, an eastern state of India 
  13. For the purpose of administration, forests have been classified into three types— (i) Reserved forests (ii) Protected forests (iii) Unclassed forests.
  14. Reserved Forests are forests which are permanently earmarked and regarded as most valuable for the conservation of forests and wildlife resources either for the production of timber or other forest produce. Grazing and cultivation is seldom permitted in a reserved forest.
  15. In Protected Forests, these rights are allowed subject to a few minor restrictions.
  16. Unclassed Forests consist of inaccessible forests or unoccupied wastes belonging to both government and private individual and communities.
  17. In India, forests are also home to some of the traditional communities.
  18. Belief of tribes that all creations of nature must be protected have led to preservation of virgin
  19. forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of Gods and Goddesses).
  20. In India, sacred qualities are often ascribed to springs, mountain peaks, plants and animals which are closely protected.
  21. Chipko Movement in the Himalayas resisted deforestation. Farmers, and citizens’ groups like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of synthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable.
  22. In India, Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example for involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
The document Key Concepts: Forest & Wildlife Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Key Concepts: Forest & Wildlife Resources - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What are forest resources and why are they important?
Ans. Forest resources refer to the various components of forests, including trees, plants, animals, and minerals, that are utilized by humans for various purposes. They are important as they provide essential goods like timber, fuelwood, and medicinal plants, as well as ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, water regulation, and biodiversity conservation.
2. How does deforestation affect wildlife?
Ans. Deforestation leads to the destruction of forest habitats, which directly impacts wildlife. It results in the loss of food sources, nesting sites, and shelter for many species. Additionally, deforestation fragments habitats, making it difficult for wildlife to move and migrate. This can lead to a decline in wildlife populations and even extinction of certain species.
3. What are the measures taken to conserve forest and wildlife resources?
Ans. Several measures are taken to conserve forest and wildlife resources. These include: - Establishing protected areas, national parks, and wildlife sanctuaries to preserve biodiversity. - Implementing strict laws against illegal hunting, poaching, and trade of wildlife and their products. - Promoting sustainable forest management practices to ensure the long-term availability of forest resources. - Reforestation and afforestation efforts to restore and expand forest cover. - Creating awareness among the public about the importance of forest and wildlife conservation through education and campaigns.
4. How does urbanization impact forest and wildlife resources?
Ans. Urbanization has a significant impact on forest and wildlife resources. The expansion of cities and infrastructure leads to the conversion of forests into urban areas, resulting in habitat loss for wildlife. Urbanization also increases pollution, noise, and disturbance, which can disrupt the natural behaviors and breeding patterns of wildlife. Furthermore, urban development often requires the extraction of resources from forests, leading to their depletion.
5. What are the economic benefits of forest and wildlife resources?
Ans. Forest and wildlife resources provide various economic benefits. Forests contribute to the economy by providing timber for construction, furniture, and paper industries. They also offer non-timber forest products such as resins, gums, medicinal plants, and fruits, which have commercial value. Wildlife resources contribute to ecotourism, attracting tourists and generating revenue for local communities. Additionally, forests and wildlife play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance, which indirectly supports agriculture, fisheries, and other industries.
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