➢ Frédéric Sorrieu Vision of World
Frédéric Sorrieu, a French artist, in 1848 prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and Social Republics.
Frederic Sorrieu - Universal Democratic and the Social Republic
- The first print shows the people of Europe and America marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass it. The torch of Enlightenment was carried by a female figure in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
- On the earth in the foreground lie the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
- In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.
- The procession was led by the United States and Switzerland, followed by France and Germany. Following the German people are the people of Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.
- From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene. They have been used by the artist to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.
- During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a force that brought huge changes in the political and mental world of Europe. The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state.
The Storming of Bastille
➢ The French Revolution & the Idea of a Nation
- Europe in the 19th century witnessed the emergence of nation-states, in which the citizens and the rulers develop a common identity.
- Growth of nationalism in France.
- Ideas such as la patrie and le citoyen created a sense of collective identity among the French people.
- Change of monarchy and establishment of the republic, creation of new assembly.
- Rise of Napoleon and introduction of the Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleonic Code.
- Industrialization in England and the rise of the middle class.
- Views of liberals, radicals and conservatives.
- Treaty of Vienna of 1815 signed by Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, who had collectively defeated Napoleon.
- New conservation after 1815 and preservation of the traditional institution.
- Liberal nationalists continue to oppose the monarchical form of government established after the Vienna Congress.
- Secret societies formed by the revolutionists who continued to fight for liberty and freedom. Italian revolutionary Mazzini founded secret societies such as Young Italy and Young Europe.
Europe after Congress of Vienna 1815
➢ The Making of Nationalism in Europe
- Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and Cantonese these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
- Uses of different languages.
- Rise of the middle class.
- Industrialization in England, the emergence of a working-class and liberalism.
- New conservation after 1815 and preservation of the traditional institution.
- After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government follows the spirit of conservatism. Conservative regimes were autocratic Revolutionaries at that time who fought for liberty and freedom.
- Example: Mazzini’s Young Italy and Young Europe.
The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class
The Aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent politically and socially. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the eighteenth century. New social groups came into being: a working-class population and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
- The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
- In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
A New Conservatism after 1815
- In 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed in monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and that the family should be preserved.
- A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
- In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria met in Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
- The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
- The major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press
- In 1815, secret societies were formed in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Revolutionary opposed monarchical forms, fight for liberty and freedom.
- The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini, born in Genoa in 1807, founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles.
- Secondly, he founded Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
➢ The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
- Liberalism and nationalism became associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
- The first upheaval took place in France, in July 1830. Liberal revolutionaries installed a constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe.
Revolutionaries in Berlin in March 1848, waving the revolutionaries flags
- The Greek War of Independence was another event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
- Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Romanticism was a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
- Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- The 1830s saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, and poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
- Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
- Romanticism, a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- The Russian language was imposed everywhere and in 1831 an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed.
Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt
- Europe faced economic hardships in the 1830s. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
- In 1848, food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.
The Revolution of the Liberals
- In 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was underway.
- Men and women of the liberal middle class demanded the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
- A large number of political associations came together in Frankfurt to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul.
- The Constitution drafted for the German nation was headed by a monarchy, subject to a Parliament.
- The Crown was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia but he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
- The Middle Class dominated the Parliament and a large number of women participated in the liberal movement.
- Women formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations, but they were still denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly.
- In the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
- Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
➢ The Making of Germany and Italy
- In 1848, an all-German National Assembly was voted for in Frankfurt.
- The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
- Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
- After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were used to promote state power.
The Revolutionary Barricades in Vienna in May 1848
- In 1848, Germans tried to unite into a nation-state.
- Prussia took the lead under its Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France ended in victory for Prussia and a unified Germany.
- In January 1871, Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at a ceremony at Versailles.
- Before unification, Italy was fragmented. In the north it was a part of the multinational Habsburg Empire, central parts of Italy were under the Pope and the southern region was under the Bourbon kings of Spain.
- Three Men: Giuseppe Mazzini, Chief Minister Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played a leading role in unifying Italy during the 1830s.In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.
- In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval but was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
- The Act of Union (1707): united Scotland and England and “the United Kingdom of Great Britain” was formed.
- Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. A new British nation was formed.
Map: Unification of Germany
➢ Visualising the Nation
- In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, artists represented a country as a person and nations as female figures.
- During the French Revolution, female figures portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. Liberty is represented as a red cap, or the broken chain, Justice a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
➢ Nationalism and Imperialism