Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes

The document Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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SECTION - A

The French Revolution and The Idea of a Nation, And Making of Nationalism in Europe

  • Europe in the 19th century witnessed the emergence of nation states, in which the citizens and the rulers develop a common identity.
  • Growth of nationalism in France.
  • Ideas such as la patrie and le citoyen created sense of collective identity among the French people.
  • Change of monarchy and establishment of republic, creation of new assembly.
  • Rise of Napoleon and introduction of the Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleonic Code.
  • Industrialization in England and rise of middle class.
  • Views of liberals, radicals and conservatives.
  • Treaty of Vienna of 1815 signed by Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, who had collectively defeated Napoleon.
  • New conservation after 1815 and preservation of traditional institution.
  • Liberal nationalists continue to oppose monarchical form of government established after the Vienna Congress.
  • Secret societies formed by the revolutionists who continued to fight for liberty and freedom. Italian revolutionary Mazzini founded secret societies such as Young Italy and Young Europe.

Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes

Fig. Storming of the Bastille during French Revolution


The making of Nationalism in Europe

  • Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and cantonese these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
  • Uses of different languages.
  • Rise of middle class.
  • Industrialization in England, emergence of a working class and liberalism.
  • New conservation after 1815 and preservation of traditional institution.
  • After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government follows the spirit of conservatism. Conservative regimes were autocratic Revolutionaries at that time fought for liberty and freedom .
  • Example, Mazzini’s young Italy and Young Europe. 

SECTION - B

The Age of Revolution (1830–1848) And the Making of Germany and Italy

  • Liberalism and nationalism became associated with revolution in many regions of Europe such as the Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland.
  • The first upheaval took place in France, on July 1830. Liberal revolutionaries installed a constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe.
  • The Greek War of Independence was another event which mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite in Europe.
  • Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories, music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
  • Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
  • Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  • The 1830's saw a rise in prices, bad harvest, and poverty in Europe. Besides the poor, unemployed and starving peasants, even educated middle classes, revolted.
  • In 1848, an all-German National Assembly was voted for in Frankfurt.
  • The issue of extending political rights to women became a controversial one.
  • Conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, but could not restore the old order.
  • After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were used to promote state power.

Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes

Fig. The revolutionary barricades in Vienna in May 1848 

  • In 1848, Germans tried to unite into a nation-state.
  • Prussia took the lead under its Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France ended in victory for Prussia and a unified Germany.
  • In January 1871, Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor at a ceremony at Versailles.
  • Before unification, Italy was fragmented. In the north it was a part of the multinational Habsburg Empire, central parts of Italy were under the Pope and the southern region was under the Bourbon kings of Spain.
  • Three Men– Giuseppe Mazzini, Chief Minister Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played a leading role in unifying Italy during the 1830s.
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.
  • In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval but was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
  • The Act of Union (1707)– united Scotland and England and “the United Kingdom of Great Britain” was formed.
  • Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. A new British nation was formed.

SECTION - C

Visualizing the Nation: Nationalism and Imperialism

  • People and artists in the 18th and 19th centuries personified a nation.
  • In France, Marianne became the allegory of the French nation, while Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
  • By the 1870s nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment but became a narrow creed with limited ends.
  • The major European powers, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.Key Concepts Chapter 1 - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, SST (History) Class 10 | EduRev Notes

Fig. A painting by Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville from 1887 depicting French students being taught about the lost provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, taken by Germany in 1871.

  • People everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism.
  • The idea that societies should be organised into nation-states came to be accepted as natural and universal.
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