Literature Works - Education, Learning and Literature, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Literature Works - Education, Learning and Literature, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Literature Works - Education, Learning and Literature, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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Literature Works
 

  • Periplus Maris Erythreae — An anonymously written maritime geography of east-west trade, during A. D. 80-115.
  • Munu Smriti — composed between 200 B. C. and A. D. 200, according to Dr. Buhler.
  • Kalpasutras — written between C. 600 B. C. and 200 B.C. These consist of Srautasutras, Grihyasutras, Dharmasutras and Sulvasutras.
  • The 18 puranas are Brahma, Padma, Vaishnava, Saiva or Vayavya, Bhagavata, Naradiya, Markandeya, Agneya, Bhavishya or Bhavisyat, Brahmavaivarta, Lainga, Varaha, Skanda, Vamana, Kaurma, Matsya, Garuda, and Brahmanda.
         Every Purana deals with Sarga, Prati-Sarga, Vamsha, Manvantra, and Vamshachrita.
  • Pali (Buddhist) cannon is divided into three Pickets :

 

Remember the facts

  • Harsha wrote the Ratnavali, Priyadarsika and Nagananda.
  • Harshacharia  and Kadambari was written by Banabhatta.
  • The Panchatantra, an important work on beast-fable was written by Vishnusarman.
  • The Hitopadesa was written by Narayana Pandita.
  • The earliest form of Asaamese are found in the Dohakosa and Caryagitti of the Siddha caste of Buddhism.
  • The first written work in Assamese is the Prahlad Charita by Hema Sarasvati.
  • Ramacharita, a Sanskrit work by Abhinanda,  of the 8th century A.D., claims to represent the first Bengali writing.
  • Kalidasa wrote Kumarasambhava, Ragh-uvamsa, Malavikagnimitra, Vikramorvasiya, Abhiijn-anasakuntala, Meghaduta and Ritusamhara etc.
  • The Kiratarjuniya of Bharavi describes how Arjuna obtained the pasupata weapon from Siva.
  • The Bhattikvya or Ravanavadha was written by Bhatti (with the sole object of illustrating the rules and principles of grammer and rhetorric).
  • Janakiharna was written by Kumaradasa, and Magha wrote Sishupalavadha.
  • The most outstanding early Sanskrit dramatist is Bhasa.

 

(i)    Vinaya Pitaka : deals with the disciplianry rules and regulations for leading a monastic life.
     The texts contained in it are Sutta Vibhaga, Khandakas, and Parivara.
 (ii)    Sutta Pitaka : The summary of the teachings of Buddha. It includes Digha Nikaya,  Mijihma Nikaya, Samyatta Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, Khudduka Nikaya.
 (iii)    Abhidhamma Pitaka : Deals with the doctrines of the Buddha in a scholastic manner, it contains 7 texts.
 ¯    Dhammapada is a collection of 423 sayings of Buddha.
 ¯    Theragatha is a collection of poems composed by the Buddhist monks.
     Therigatha is a collection of poems composed by the Buddhist nuns.
 ¯    Buddhavamasa is a collection of legends depicting the 24 lives of Buddha.
 ¯    Visuddhimagga : Written by Buddhagosha who lived in Ceylon in the 5th century A. D.
 ¯    Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa : Chronicles of Ceylon, dating from the 4th and 5th centrury A. D., respectively.
 ¯    Vaipulya Sutras : Sanskrit works dealing with Buddhism. It is in nine books.
     Lalitavistara : The embellished stroy of the life of Buddha. It is amongst the earliest Mahayan texts. The text was utilized by Sir Edwin Arnold for his The Light of Asia.
 ¯    The other important  Mahayan scriptures are Saddharmapundarika, Vajrachc-khhedika, Sukhava-tivyaha, Karandavyuha, and Astasaha sriprajnaparmita.
 ¯    Nettiprakarana : Teachings of Buddha.
     Petakopdesha : four noble truths. Both these writings are considered to be those of Maha-Kachchana (C. 487 B. C.).
 ¯    Abhidharma Kosha : Written by Vasubandhu (5th century A.D.)
 ¯    Jatakas : Write turning the 2nd or 3rd century B.C.
 ¯    Mudrarakshas : By Vishakha Datta, during the Gupta period.
 ¯    Mahabhasya : By Patanjali; he also wrote Vyas-Bhashya (on Yoga Sutra).
  

¯    Ashtadhyayi : By Panini
 ¯    Gaudavaho : Deals with the achievements of Yasovarmana; by Vakapti.
 ¯    Vikramanakadevacharita : By Bilhan.
 ¯    Ramcharit : The story of king Rampal of Bengal.
 ¯    Kumarapala Charita : By Jayasimha, another book of the same title is written by Hemchandra.
 ¯    Hammira Kavya : By Naya Chandra (14th century; a Jain monk, wrote in Sanskrit).
 ¯    Navasahasanka Charita : By Padmagupta.
 ¯    Bhojprabandha : By Ballal
 ¯    Rajtarangini : By Kalhana (1149-50 A.D.). It is a history of Kashmir.
 ¯    Ras Mala and Kirti Kaumudi : By Someshwar.
 ¯    Sukrita Samkirtana : By Arisimha.
 ¯    Prabandha Chintamani and Theravali : By Merutunga (14th century A.D.).
 ¯    Prabandha Kosh : By Rajashekhara.
 ¯    Hammiramad Mardana : By Jaisimha.
 ¯    Naturalis Historia : In Latin, written by Pliny in A.D. 77; it is about Indian animals, plants and minerals.
 ¯    Geography of India : Written by Ptolemy in about A.D.150.
 ¯    Historiac Philippicae : Written by Trogus Pompeius. Some Prologues to the chapters are preserved in Epitoma Historiarum Philipp-icarum of Justinus (it throws light on the relation of Seleucus with India and the Bactrian invasion of India.
 ¯    Geography of India : by Pomonius Meals.
 ¯    Mani, Bka’, Bum : It is the sacred history of Tibet.
 ¯    Bu stons’ Chos’ Byun (birth of the law) : It is in three parts, and gives information about Indian History.
 ¯    Monuments of Countries : By Al Kazwin.
 ¯    Nitisastra : By Sukra.
 ¯    Nitisara : By Kamandaka in the Gupta period. It is a metrical summary of Kautilya's Arthasastra.
 ¯    Nitivakyamrita : By Somadeva Suri, a 10th centrury Jain writer, in Sutra style. He also wrote Katha Sarit Sagar.
 ¯    Rajanitikalpataru : By Laksmidhara (A.D. 1125).
 ¯    Yuktikalpataru : By Bhoja (A.D. 1025)
 ¯    Rajnitikanda : By Devana Bhatta (A.D. 1300).
 ¯    Rajnitiratnakara : By Chandeshwara (A.D. 1326).
 ¯    Nitimayukha : By Nilkantha.
 ¯    Rajnitiprakasha : by Mitramishra.
 ¯    Parisishtaparvana : Written by Hemchandra (A.D. 1088).
 ¯    Arthashastra : Contains 15 Adhikarnas or sections and 180 Prakarnas, and 6000 slokas. It was discovered by Shama Sastri in 1909.
 ¯    Mudrarakshas : Written by Vishakhadatta during the Gupta period. He also wrote Devichandra guptam.
 ¯    Brihat-Katha Kosha : By Harishena.
 ¯    Bhadrabahu-Charita : By Ratnananada.
 ¯    Vajasneyipratisakhya : it is a class of work designed to preserve the Vedic texts correctly. Authored by Katyayan Vararuchi.
 ¯    Chhandah-Sutras : by Pingala.
 ¯    Theravali : By Merutunga, a Jain writer in the 14th century.
 ¯    Sattasai (Saptasataka) : In Sanskrit; authored by the Satvahana ruler, Hala (ruled from A.D.20 to A.D.40)
 ¯    Katantra : In prakrit; by Sarvavarman.
 ¯    Svapna-Vasavdatta : A play written by Bhasa, a poet and dramatist of Sanskrit during the Kanvarule.
 ¯    Prajna parmita Sutra Sastra : By Nagarjuna, an exponent of Mahayana philosophy.
 ¯    Mahavibhasa Sastra : By Vasumitra.
 ¯    Garga Samhita : By Gargacharya. The works from 62 to 67 belong to the post-Mauryan times (c. 187 B.C.-A.D. 320).
 ¯    Rajsekhara was the author of Kavyamimamsa and Prabandhkosha.
 ¯    Brihatakatha Sloka-Samgraha : By Buddhas-wamin.
 ¯    Brihatkatha Manjari : By Kshemandra.
 ¯    Kamandaka Nitisara : By Shikhar, prime minister of Chandragupta II.
 ¯    Setubandhakavya : A prakrit poem, by Pravarsena II, a Vakataka king (c.A.D. 420-A.D. 450).
 ¯    Kaumudi Mahotsava : A drama of five Acts; written in A.D. 340 by Kisorika or Vijjika.
 ¯    Sringarprakash : By Bhopa.
 ¯    Natyadarpana : By Ramchandra.
 ¯    Natakalakshana Ratnakosha : By Sagarnandin.
 ¯    Fo-kuo-ki (or Record of Buddhist Kingdoms) : By Fa-hien.
 ¯    Vishnusmriti and Vishnupurana were written in the Gupta period
 ¯    Mrickchhakatika or the little clay cart : A drama in Sanskrit, was written by Sudraka who flourished in the 4th century A.D.
 ¯    Ravanvadha/Bhattikavya : By Bhatti, who was the court-poet of Dharasena IV of Maintraka dynasty of Vallabhi
 ¯    Panchatantra : composed by Vishnusarman.
 ¯    Sankyakarika : A commentary on the Sankhya system of philosophy, written by Ishwarkrishna (4th century A.D.).
 ¯    Prarthadharma Samgraha : A work on Vaise-shika system of philosophy by Prashastapad (5th century A.D.).
 ¯    Kavyadarsa and Dasakumarcharita : By Dandin, a court poet of Narsimhavarman II Pallava (A.D.695-722).
 ¯    Pramana Samudya : By Dignaga, a follower of Yogachar school of Mahayanism.
 ¯    Chandravyakaran : By Chandragomin (in Gaupta period).
 ¯    Surya Siddhanta : Here are given the true causes of solar and lunar eclipses. Written by Aryabhatta, the first Indian astronomer to declare that earth revolves round its axis.
 ¯    Brihat Samhita, Pancha Siddhantika, Brihajjataka and Laghujataka were written by Varahamihir during the Gupta period.
 ¯    Hastyayurved : A work on veterinery science by Palakapya
 ¯    All the plays written in the Gupta period were comedies. Women and Sudras featuring in these plays use Prakrit.
 ¯    Form Gupta period onwards greater emphasis is on verse than on prose.
 ¯    Mitakshara : A commentary on law book of Yajnavalkya, by Vijnaesvara (who lived at the court of Vikramaditya VI. According to it, partition of the property might take place even without the consent of paterfamilies, by agreement among the sons. The right of a wife to inherit if no sons were living was accepted.
 ¯    Dayabhaga : A treatise on inheritance by Jimutavahan (12th century A.D.).
 ¯    Chatuhasataka : An authoritative work on Mahayanism by Aryadev.
 ¯    Kasikavritti : Commentary on the  sutras, written by the grammarian Jayaditya,
 ¯    Bhartrihari Sastra : Composed by Bhartrihari, a contemporary of Dharmapala (7th century A.D.).
 ¯    Gaudvaho : A Prakrit work, by Vakpatiraja, court-poet of Yasovarman.
 ¯    Raja Bhoja of Dhara (C.A.D. 1025) wrote Ayurveda Sarvasva, Rajamriganka, Vyavahara Samuchya, Sabdanusasana, Yuktikalpataru and Sringararupakam.
 ¯    Rajsekhara (c.A.D. 900) lived in the court of king Mahendrapala of Kanauj.
     He wrote Karpuramanjari (a drama in Prakrit), Balaramayan, Balabharata, Viddhesabhanjika, Kavyamimansa and Bhuvankosha.
 ¯    Gita-Govinda : Half drama and half lyric, by Jayadeva, poetlaureate of King Laxmansena of Bengal.
 ¯    Sisupalavadha : Written by Magha.
 ¯    Naisadhacharita : By Sri Harsh
 ¯    Navasahasankacharitra by Padmagupta (A.D. 1000).
 ¯    Tilakamanjari and Yasastilaka were written by Dhanpal.
 ¯    Vasavadatta : By Subandhu.
 ¯    Bhavabhuti was the authorof Mahaviracharita, Uttar Ramcharita and Maltimadhava.
 ¯    Prabodhachandra : By Anandavardhan.
 ¯    Anarh Raghava : By Murari
 ¯    Vikramankacharita : By Bilhan.
 ¯    Ramcharit : A history of Pala dynasty, by Sandhyakarnandit.
 ¯    Prithviraj Vijay : By Jayank.
 ¯    Kumarpalacharita : By Hemchandra.
 ¯    Sangit Ratnakar : By Sharangadeva.
 ¯    Nyaya Bindu : By Dharmakirti, a follower of Yogachara school.
 ¯    Astitang Samgraha : By Vagabhadra, a physician.
 ¯    Kappanahyudaya : Written by a Buddhist, Sivasvamin.
 ¯    Parsvabhyudayakavya : By Jinasena, a Digambara Jain.
 ¯    Padmapurana : By Ravishena
 ¯    Vardhamancharita : By Asaga
 ¯    Yasodharacharita : By Kanakasena Vidiraja
 ¯    Haravijaya : By Rajanaka Ratnakar who flourished under Jayapida and Avantivarman of Kashmir.
 ¯    Kadambari Kathasara (9th century) : By Abhinanda.
 ¯    Janakiharana : By Kumaradasa.
 ¯    Pratibachanakya and Dasanan Svapna : Both these dramas were written by Bhima.
 ¯    Chuda-mani : A play written by Saktibhadra.
 ¯    Chandakaushika : By Kshemisvara.
 ¯    Nighantu : A medical lexicon by Dhanavantri.
 ¯    Avidhana Ratnamala : Halayudha
 ¯    Dhatupradipa : By Maitreyarakshita.
 ¯    Balabodhini : By Batta Jagaddhara
 ¯    Laghuvritti : By Chitichhubhatta (in. A.D. 1000).
 ¯    Alamkarasarasamgraha : By Udbhat who fl-
 ourished in the second half of the 8th century A.D.
 ¯    Kavyalamkara : By Rudrata.
 ¯    Sringaratilaka : By Rudrabhatta.
 ¯    Kavyalankara Sutravritti : By Vaman.
 ¯    Dridhabala revised and enlarged Charaka-Samhita of Agnivea in the 8th or 9th century A.D.
 ¯    Siddhiyoga : By Vrinada (A.D. 1000).
 ¯    Lilavati : A work on mathematics by Bhaskaracharya who titled it after his daughter who died at a young age.
 ¯    Rasaratnakara : By Nagarjuna (7th or 8th century A.D.).
 ¯    Brihanamahasa : By Manu in the last quarter of the 9th century A.D.
 ¯    Laghumanasa : By Manjula (c.A.D. 934).
 ¯    Aryasiddhanata : By Aryabhatta II.
 ¯    Balakrida : A work on Yajnavalkya-smriti by Visvarupa.
 ¯    Rajamartanada : By Bhoja.
 ¯    Yogavartika and Yogasarasamgraha were written by Vijnanhhikshu.
 ¯    Tattvasuddhi : By Udayana (A.D. 184).
 ¯    Nyayasara : By Bhasarvajna (10th century A.D.).
 ¯    Nyagatattva and Yogarahasya : By Nathmuni.
 ¯    Yamunacharya was the author of Mahapurusha-Nirnaya, Gita Samgraha, Siddhitraya, Agamapramanya,
 ¯    Haribhadra was the author of Samaraditya, Katha and Dhurtakhyama (all in Prakrit).
 ¯    Bhuvanasundri-Katha : By Vijayasimha (A.D.975).
 ¯    Updesmala : By Dharmadasgani (A.D. 857).
 ¯    Adipurana : By Jinasena, preceptor of Amoghavarsha I (814-878), the Rashtrakuta ruler.
 ¯    Amoghavritti : By Sakatayan.
 ¯    Tiruttondar Puranam (or Periya Puranam) : Also called the fifth veda. Written by Sekkilar, a contemporary of Kulottunga II (12th century A.D.).
 ¯    Tirumurais : Collected into eleven volumes, in the early part of the 12th century A.D. These are also looked upon as the fifth Veda.
 ¯    Divya-suri-Charita and Guruparamparai : The Vaishnav counterparts of Periya-Puranam. Also give necessary background for a proper estimate of Ramanuja (1017-1137).
 ¯    Ramanuja Nurrandadi : By Amudanar.
 ¯    Nala Venba : By Pugalendi.
 ¯    Virasoliyam : By Buddhamitra.
 ¯    Kalingattupparani : Describes the exploits of Kulottunga in his 2nd Kalinga war. Written by Jayangondar.
 ¯    Sivakasindamani : Written by Tirukkadevar (10th century A.D.).
 ¯    Ramayan (in Tamil) : By Kamban (12th century A.D.).
 ¯    Nannur (on grammar) : By Pavanandi.
 ¯    Yapparungalam and Yapparungala kari kai : By Amritasagar, a Jain Poet
 ¯    Madurkkanchi : Written by Mangudi Marudan, the poet patronised by Nedum Chezhiyan (the Pandya king).
 ¯    Suttanipata : The earliest Buddhist text; declares the cattle to be givers of food, beauty and happiness (annada vannada sukhada).
 ¯    Charakasamhita : Written by Charaka in 2nd century A.D.

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